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Chuvashia, Chuvashia or the Chuvash Republic is a federated republic within Russia. The Chuvash, for whom the Republic is named, are one of the Turkish peoples. Chuvashia is located in the central part of Russia and was founded in June 1920. Its area is 18,300 km². Its population is approximately 1,350,000. Its capital city is Çeboksarı.

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Oleg Alekseyevich Nikolayev, a Russian statesman, politician and economist (born December 10, 1969), is currently President of the Chuvash Republic since 22 September 2020. Member of the Central Council of the Chuvash Republic since February 6, 2020 and a Fair Russia party since 2020.

Nikolayev is a former member of the State Duma from 2016 to 2020. He also chaired the State Duma Ethnic Affairs Committee (from 22 January to 29 January 2020).

Chuvash people are a Turkish people of about 2 million people who live in the autonomous Chuvash Republic in the Central Idil region and speak Chuvash. He is one of the two Turkish peoples who are Orthodox Christians.




The ancestors of the Chuvash, Bulgars and Suvarlar (Sibir, Sabir), like other Turkish peoples, came to the region where they live today from Central Asia. According to the researches, there are Ogur-Onogurs at the origin of ancient Bulgarians. These tribes lived around the Tanrı Mountains and Irtysh River. Paying attention to the fact that the word Ogur is more common in the region where "r" Turkish is used, we encounter a very interesting situation when we use the expression "z" in Turkish: Knowing that the r sound in r Turkish changes with the z sound in z Turkish, we find the expression "Ogur" in z Turkish as Oguz. is possible. It is clear from the culture and elements that the Bulgarians and Suvar tribes derived from Central Asia. This situation is reflected in the Chuvash language as well. Chuvashes have very common points with Turkish peoples living in Altai and Southern Siberia. Among these, there are many similarities in language and ethnography, especially to Khakas, Uyghurs, Altays, Shor and Tuvan. Common points stand out in life styles, food, clothing, tools used, embroidery and styles used by women, shamanist beliefs, mythology and music. The religion of Chuvash mostly includes the ancient religions of Sayan-Altai Turks. III before Christ. century, Huns began to migrate westward. Along with this migration, the Onogurs, one of the Hun tribes, were also in BC. II. century, Persian speaking peoples came to neighboring countries. Here, the Iranians named this ring, which they saw with a horse, Suvar. This word meant horseman in Persian. According to historical sources, the main work that Suvarlar did was animal husbandry and they lived a nomadic life.


Chuvashia History

The Bulgarian language is accepted by many researchers as the ancient form of Chuvash today. In this respect, the ancient Bulgarian Turks are shown as the ancestors of today's Chuvash Turks.
While Barthold, one of the researchers, says that the Chuvash people are a mixture of Bulgarians and Slavs, Kovalevskiy traces the origin of the Chuvash to the Suvarlar. According to Rasony, if there is a mixture other than Turkish in the blood of Chuvash, it can only be Finnish blood (L. Rasonyi 1996: 95).

In the Byzantine sources, the name of the Bulgarians is first encountered in 482. It is estimated that the Bulgarians lived in the north of the Black Sea during the Great Hun Empire. After the Hun Empire broke up, the Bulgarians lived in two separate groups, the Kutrigurs and the Utrigurs. The origin of the word Bulgarian is attributed to the verb "bulgamak" which means "mixed" by many researchers (Kurat 1992: 108-109).

During the years when the Avars escaped from the pressure of the Göktürks and reached the Adriatic, Utrigur and Kutrigur Bulgarians living in İdil and Don tribes also came under the rule of the Göktürk Kağan (Kurat 1992: 111).

Upon the interregnum period of the Göktürk Khanate in 630, the Bulgarians established the "Great Bulgaria" State; However, this state established by the Bulgarians was destroyed by the neighboring Khazar Khanate after 665 ”. After this disintegration, the crowded Bulgarian masses under the administration of Asparuh turned towards the Danube and entered the Balkans and established the Danube Bulgarians State in 681 (Merçil 1997: 13).

After the disintegration of the Great Bulgarian State, the main Utrigur mass in the Don clan, on the other hand, went to the northeast direction with the pressure of the Khazars and stood at the height of the Middle Idil. The Bulgarians of Idil established a state here by taking the Fin-Ugric and previously Turkish-origin tribes under their rule (Kurat 1992: 110, 111).

Idil Bulgarians, known as the ancestors of today's Chuvash, chose Islam as their official religion in 920, during the time of Yiltavar Almış Khan, son of Shelkey. Ibn Fadlan, who was a clerk in the delegation sent by the Caliph Mukti Billâh Cafer and went to the region, also mentions the Bulgarian inhabitants of those years in his travel book.

Until the fall of the Khazar Khanate (965), the Bulgarians were subordinated to this state and paid taxes to the Khazar Khan. In 1236, the Mongols attacked the Bulgarians and destroyed the villages and cities. In 1391, during the expedition of Timur against the Golden Army Khan Toktamış, the Bulgarian country was once again destroyed. 9-13. The Bulgarian city, which was the most important trade center of Eastern Europe between centuries, was destroyed by the Russians in 1399 (Merçil 1997: 14,15).

Located within the Golden Army and Kazan Khanate respectively, Chuvashistan came under Russian rule after the invasion of Kazan in 1552. Chuvashia appears to be united with the Moscow government in 1650 (Kruger 1961: 9). The Chuvash people faced the policies of being Christianized and Russified under Russian rule by force. In this direction, various missionary activities were seen, for example, the Bible was translated into Chuvash (Yüce 1993: 389).

Established in 1920, the Chuvash Mukhtar District was transformed into the Chuvash Mukhtar Republic in 1925. Although the Chuvash Turks declared their sovereignty on October 24, 1990, they could not avoid being affiliated with the Russian Federation. The first free presidential elections in Chuvashia were held in 1993 and a lawyer, Nikolay V. Fedorov, was elected president (Gömeç 1999: 239).

Chuvashia Geography

Chuvashistan, which is one of the Turkish dormitories in the Russian Federation, is one of the most precious lands of the Turkish geography along with other cities, especially Chebashkar, the capital established by the Idil River. Chuvashistan with a small area of 18,300 km²; It is surrounded by Tatarstan to the east, the Gorky Autonomous Republic to the west, Mari to the north and Ulyanovsk to the south.

According to the 1989 census conducted during the Soviet Union, the population of the Chuvash is 1,842,300. 915.614 of this population live in Chuvashistan. The other regions where Chuvash live and the number of Chuvash people living in these places are as follows:

Chuvashia Administrative Regions

There are 21 large settlements in Chuvashia. The main cities of the Republic; Cheboksary, Yeni Chebashkar, Kanash, Ulatır, Shimirle, Kuslavkka, Sirpü and Yedirne.


  • Sixty percent of the Chuvash economy is based on industry. The main sectors influencing the economy of the Republic are: Electric vehicles, machine parts, metal, alcohol, chemistry, leather processing plants, light industry, locomotive and automobile workshops, rubber, furniture, wood coating, meat combinations, forestry and agriculture-based sectors. Machinery and metal industry ranks first among these sectors in terms of development. The availability of nature and geography also puts forestry and woodworking in the foreground. Besides, it is noteworthy that especially the alcoholic beverage industry is highly developed in Chuvashia. The hops, which grows abundantly in the country, is mainly used in this sector. There are also factories in Chuvashia that cannot continue their activities for some reasons despite the diversity of the sectors.

Chuvash Social Life

Başkent Şupaşkar attracts attention with its modern buildings that are over fifteen floors in some places. The settlement plan of the city is very organized. Parks, gardens and green areas are quite numerous. 67% of the population of Chebashkar is Chuvash and 26% is Russians. Most of the Chuvash people are high school and university graduates. It is seen that women work mostly like men in the city. People who work all day long, especially in the summer, in the evening and in the evening, wander along the banks of the Idil River, which lies right next to the city. They run to movie theaters and theaters.

Chuvash villages are different. The interior designs of the village houses, each of which is an art monument, are as perfect as their external appearance. The tree decorations on the exterior of the houses add a distinct beauty to these rare buildings. Products such as wheat, potatoes, onions, tomatoes, cabbage and carrots are grown mostly in villages with 100-150 houses. Chuvashia has an important share in the production of hops in Russia. Two thirds of the country's hops production is provided from Chuvashia.

The motifs and fine embroidery of the chuvash clothing are entirely in familiar colors and textures. Geometric patterned Chuvash clothes embroidered with red and yellow colors on a white background are also very interesting from the folkloric point of view.

Various commemoration and celebration programs are held on certain days and weeks in Chuvashia. Established in 1469, the 530th anniversary of the capital Chebashkar was celebrated enthusiastically in 1999. Also in the city, on the 9th of May every year, II. The Monument of Honor, erected in memory of the soldiers who died in World War II, is visited. In addition, various memorial meetings held for the famous poets and writers of Chuvashia attract attention with their contents.

Various societies engaged in cultural activities are established among Chuvash youth. Suvar (Chuvash Youth Union) Community is one of these communities. There is a picture of a Bozkurt (Kaşkér) on the emblem of the community. Organized by the Turkish Hearths, the 9th Turkish Youth Congress was held in Chuvashistan in 1999. The Suvar Community undertook the organization in Chuvashistan and the organization of the community was perfect in everything.

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