top of page



The Republic of Adige is a member republic of the Russian Federation in the North Caucasus. It is located in the north of the Caucasus Mountains, within the boundaries of Krasnodar Kray. The name of the republic's translator is Respublika Adıgeya and it is also known as Adigeya.


Murat Kumpilov (Circassian: КъумпӀылэ Мурат, Murat with Qump; Russian: Мурат Каральбиевич Кумпилов, Murat Karalbiyeviç Kumpilov; born February 27, 1973), Adyghe (Circassian) politician and economist, currently serving as president of the Adygean Republic since January 12, 2017. . Previously, he was the prime minister of the republic from 2008-16.

00:00 / 04:14
  • In the Adige Republic, an appointed semi-Presidency system based on the principle of equality of political representation (parity) of Adyghe and Russian speakers is in force. The AC State Parliament-Khase (Хасэ), the legislative body, has two wings and a total of 54 members: The urban areas of Khase, Maikop and Adyghesk, as well as the 9 electoral districts (okrugs), which are formed by 7 rayons, are represented by three members each and mostly Adyghe-speaking members are elected. A (upper) wing with 27 members; It consists of a second (lower) wing of 27 members, where each of the rayons is represented in proportion to its population, and more Russian-speaking members are selected. Thus, the equality of political representation (parity) of the Russian and Adige population is ensured and maintained.



Republic of Adige and Trade

Adygea has great potential for economic and commercial development. One of the most important sources of income is the food industry. Products such as meat products, canned meat and vegetables, sugar, pasta, drink varieties, flower oils, especially Crimean rose are produced. "Adygeysky", "Fabmay", "The products of the Maykop sugar factory attract great interest not only in Adygea and Russia, but also abroad. The products of these companies are exported to 17 countries. Thanks to the mild climate and fertile soil, different agricultural products are grown here. For this purpose, three small dams, namely Şınci, Oktiyabrski and Shapsghh, respectively, were established next to the large Krasnodar dam. Food sources such as corn, wheat, sunflower, hemp, tobacco, melon, potatoes and vegetables are grown. One of its products is tea. The tea of this place is considered to be the most "Northern" tea in the world and is highly valued by celebrities and aristocrats. One of the important sources of income is bird breeding. Chicken, goose and duck meat are produced. Here there is one of Russia's factories that prepare diet turkey. For 60 years in the republic there are experienced institutes growing plants throughout Russia. Types of e are obtained. They have the most diverse fruit collection in the world. Quality apples, pears, plums, cherries, grapes, etc. in the Republic of Adygea. fruit varieties and medicinal plants are grown.

It is not only agriculture that determines the economic portrait of Adygea. At the same time, the industry is very developed. Apart from the food industry, the car and metal industry has also developed. Another type of industry that generates great income is the wood and timber industry. Valuable timber is obtained in the southern part. Our Republic is parquet furniture and so on. It also produces wood products. Its connection with foreign countries has developed noticeably in recent years. The income of our young Republic, whose money from exports increases every year, has reached 30.000.000 Dollars per year. Today, companies in our country have partners from many countries. Some of these countries, Germany, America, Turkey, the UK, and Italy. Export products of the Republic of Adygea; car, black metal and products made from it, and petroleum products.

One of the important economic and scientific achievements is the manufacture of high quality insulin in Maykop. Natural insulin, obtained by the joint work of scientists in the Republic of Adygea and St. Petersburg and by new technology, fully complies with world standards according to pharmacological tests. Maykop has the capacity to produce enough insulin for all patients in Russia and the production is carried out.

ADIGE History

  • Circassians are a people considered to have lived in the northwestern Caucasus since prehistoric times. For Circassian ancestors, names such as Sind and Meot were used in Greek documents. Some researchers also admit that the Adiges are derived from the Hatties (see Prof.Ğış Nuh, "The main problems of Adigece-1", the internet; also see Ali Çurey, "The Origin of Hatti Hittites and Circassians", Çiviyazıları Publishing House). It is thought that the peoples referred to as "Velcro", "Çıt", "Çınt" in the Adige epic Narts are the names of places and communities. According to the burial cult (temple) of the dead, the presence of Sindh and Meote can be traced back to the 3rd millennium BC. Meots ('Mıvıt' / 'МыутӀ' or 'МыутӀэ') had relations with Cimmerians and Scythians. 8.-7 BC. In the centuries Adige-Greek relations began (see Bestlenıye Asker, "Adygians were helping the Greeks", internet). It is written in the Greek documents that there are writings of Sind and Meots; As a matter of fact, in 1955, as a result of archaeological excavations, Meot (МыутӀэ; Adige) tablets were found in Adygea (see Adygea-Economy section). The kings of the Sindika State, which was established in the 5th century BC, but did not have sufficient information about it before, lived until the second half of the 4th century and whose center was the port of Sindika, were making coins (coins) in their own name. In 479 BC, a Greek city named Gorgippia (in the place of Anapa) was established in the place of the port of Sindika, which was captured and destroyed by the Bosporos Kingdom. Sindika was founded in the 4th century BC, during the reign of the Bosporos king Levkon I (349-348 BC) for the purpose of protection from external, especially Scythian attacks. ) joined the neighboring Kingdom of Bosporos. The weakening of the Greek "Bosporos Kingdom" on the Black Sea coast, which was unable to withstand the competition of cheap corn wheat in the 3rd century BC and entered into a process of collapse, as a result of the attacks of the Sarmatians, the followers of the Scythians that emerged in the 2nd century AD, and the Goths from the west and the Huns from the northeast and north and concentrated in the 4th century Cities on the coasts of the Azov Sea and the Black Sea were destroyed and coastal trade ended, fertile lands and pastures fell into the hands of the Huns. The Adygians took shelter in the mountains.

  • After the withdrawal of the Huns (6th century), the Adygians faced the attacks of the Avars from the Asian steppes and could not come to them for a long time. After the withdrawal of the Avars, the Adygians reclaimed their former lands, and spread to the north into what is today Ukraine and the Crimean Peninsula. Currently, many places here bear Circassian names. However, the Khazars from the east and north captured most of the North Caucasus lands. Taking advantage of the situation, that is, the wars waged with the Khazars, the Russians established the Principality of Tmutarakan around the Kerch Strait in the 10th century, but the Principality was abolished in the 11th century by the merger of parts of the Adyg and Alans (Mourning). The Iranian-origin Alans, which emerged in the 2nd century AD and are considered to be the ancestors of today's Ossetians' province, concentrated and spread in the basins of the Kuban River. In the 11th-13th centuries the Alans fell into feudal divisions and lost their former power. During this period, the Adygians were given names such as Zykh (Зихы) and Kasog. Later, trade relations were established with Byzantium, Venice and Genoese, Orthodox and Catholic sects began to spread among the Adygians. But the old urban and written life could not be returned.

  • Mongol attacks began in 1223 and a Mongolian-Kipchak state, the Golden Horde, was established (1242-1501). The plain areas in the North Caucasus were captured by the Kipchaks. As a matter of fact, the Kumuk and Nogays and the Balkar and Karachay communities living in the North Caucasus today must have settled in their present places as a result of these raids, as these communities still speak in Kipchak dialects. In 1395, Timur's attacks were encountered and the Golden Horde was gradually dismantled. As a result of the fragmentation, the Crimean Khanate (1426-1783) as neighboring states in the Golden Horde and the Astrakhan Khanate (1466-1556) in the south of the Idil River and in the northwestern regions of the Caspian Sea were formed. By the way, the lands north of the Kuban River are 13-15. Over the centuries it was abandoned by the Adygians to a large extent in favor of the Tatars, and the present Kabardian region or Kabardiya was formed in the Middle Caucasus. Ruled by four great overlord families (psi) and their vassals, Kabardiya came under the rule of the Crimea as a result of the abolition of the Astrakhan Khanate by Russia in 1556 and its bordering with Russia, and in 1557 it came under Russian protection.

  • The incident that Kabardia came under Russian protection in 1557 was not contented with the present Kabardino-Balkar Republic, which included the present Adygea and the Karachay-Circassian Republic, which had no historical relevance until 1864, but exactly these two regions. (region), with at least one part each, excluding Krasnodar Kray and Stavropol Krai, which were within the borders of the historical Circassia at the time, was celebrated throughout 2007 as "450th anniversary of Adyghe joining Russia". In addition, within the framework of the celebration program, he was the daughter of Temriko Idar, the great overlord of the Muslim Kabartay (pşı), whose monumental statue was erected in Nalchik, was baptized in a Moscow church in 1561 and became the first Russian tsar, who became the second wife of Mariya Temrukovna. IV. Goshevnay Idar (1544-1569), who was married to Ivan (Ivan the Terrible; 1530-1584), symbolizing the Russian-Kabardian friendship, and a large number of Kabardian nobles (commander and statesmen) who took part in the expansion process of Russia and held effective positions were also mentioned. . Meanwhile, the Balkar people, who were the founding partners of Kabardino-Balkaria, did not participate in the 450th anniversary celebrations on the grounds that they did not join Russia in 1557 and remained a sovereign people and region until 1827.

Republic of Adige

The history of the Adygea republic is full of legends. Silk Road connecting Europe and Asia in the Middle Ages passed here. The ancestors of the Adygians created the Maikop culture, which is famous in world archeology. Historical Dolmens and Kurgans, which are connected to each other by legends and unique to the North Caucasus, constitute an open-air museum. These are evidence of the brilliant cultures of the ancient Caucasus and their close relationship with Europe and the East. The Adygians (those who gave the republic its name) are among the ancient peoples of the North Caucasus. They are known as Circassians in Europe and the East since the 13th century. Their ancestors are known as Kasog, Zih and Meot, according to written sources. It has always attracted the attention of foreign invaders with its rich vegetation and fertile soil, comfortable routes to the sea and the inner Caucasus. Therefore, their way of life is shaped according to the enemies. The boys were raised to adulthood in a foreign home, where they learned all the tactics for war. The weapon was a very important tool for them. The beautiful structures of ancient weapons are reflected today as a proof of this. Another important phenomenon was the horses. Circassians, who valued the horse very much, produced many breeds of horse.

ADIGE Geography

In the center of the region, Maykop is covered with a plain to the north, and mountains and plateaus to the south. Starting just south of Maykop, the Main Caucasus Mountain Range (Caucasus) rises to the south. Çuavş (3.238 m.), Fişt (2.867 m.), Pşehasu (2.744 m.) And Oşten (2.804 m.) Are the main hills. In this southernmost mountainous region, there are glaciers, permanent snow and lakes. The best known of the lakes is Lake Huko, at the western foot of the Huko hill, near Fişt. This area, where glaciers and permanent snow are located, constitute a great water source. Some of the streams flow into the Kuban River in the north, and the others into the Black Sea. There are fields covered with meadows and forests under the glacier and snow. This section forms a geographical and touristic region integrity together with the Black Sea coast (Kiyiboyu Shapseg).

Adige Physical Structure

The Republic of Adygea was established on July 27, 1922 under the name of "Adyghe Circassian Autonomous Region" (oblast). Later, it took its current name. When it was first established, its area was 2,645 square kilometers, covering approximately the current territories of Oktiyabrski, Teuchej, Krasnogvardeysk, Shogene and Koshable districts (rayon). Its first capital was Tohtomukay village. 45% of the total population, which was 112,800 in 1926, was Adygea (50 thousand), and 25.8% was Russian (29 thousand). Later it became its capital city, Krasnodar. When the Karsnodar Province (kray) was established in 1937 and the city of Krasnodar became the provincial center, the center of Adyge ÖB was moved to Maykop (Mıyekhuape).

In the center of the region, Maykop is covered with a plain to the north, and mountains and plateaus to the south. Starting just south of Maykop, the Main Caucasus Mountain Range (Caucasus) rises to the south. Çuavş (3.238 m.), Fişt (2.867 m.), Pşehasu (2.744 m.) And Oşten (2.804 m.) Are the main hills. In this southernmost mountainous region, there are glaciers, permanent snow and lakes. The best known of the lakes is Lake Huko, at the western foot of the Huko hill, near Fişt. This area, where glaciers and permanent snow are located, constitute a great water source. Some of the streams flow into the Kuban River in the north, and the others into the Black Sea. There are fields covered with meadows and forests under the glacier and snow. This section forms a geographical and touristic region integrity together with the Black Sea coast (Kiyiboyu Shapseg).

To briefly mention the capital city of Maykop; Maykop has a special administration that includes the city districts. Maykop is a mıyekuaga village founded in 1857 by the Adygians on the east bank of the Şhaguaşe (Belaya) River. It developed later and became the capital of the Adygea Autonomous region in 1937. Its population is about 150,000 and the Russian population is the majority. In Maikop, there is the Parliament of the Adygea Republic (the soviet of local "people's representatives"), the administration of the republic (the executive committee). Adygians are at the top of these organizations.

Population of the Adige Republic

  • Population total: 447.109 (2002)

  • Urban: 234,900 (52.5%)

  • Villager: 212,209 (47.5%)

  • Male: 208.109 (46.5%)

  • Female: 239,090 (53.5%)

In the census of 1897, 1926 and 1939, the current "Adyghe" + "Circassian" population was given as a common number under the name "Circassian" (or "Adyghe"), with the 1959 census the total population, "Adyghe" and "Circassian" (Since the 2002 census, the ethnic name "Shapsug" has been added, so that the ethnic name list of Adygians has increased to 4: Adygea, Circassian, Kabardino, Shapsig).

  • "Adyghe Autonomous Oblast" (AÖO) was established under the Russian SFSR on July 27, 1922, its first name was "Circassian (Adygea)". On August 24, 1922, Adygea (Circassian), on August 13, 1928, Adygea Autonomous Region. Oblastı (AÖO). In its first establishment, its area was 2.660 km. square, its population was about 113.5 thousand. 44.8% of this population was Adyghe (50.821), 25.6% Russian (29.102), and the administrative center was temporarily in Krasnodar, outside the oblast borders. In 1936, the territory of the AÖO was expanded, the administrative center was also in Maikop. moved. However, as a result of the expansion and Stalin's policies of placing the Russians in the national regions, the rate of Adyghe decreased by half to the level of 20%, while the proportion of Russia remained at the level of 70% until 1979 (71.1% in 1939; 1970 '. t 71.7%). Later, the number and ratio of Adyghe began to rise, while that of the Russians began to decline.

The AÖO, which declared a republic by taking a sovereign decision in October 1990, was included in the state structure of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic (RSFSC) with the status of Adygea OSSR on 3 July 1991 and remained as AC within the RF that was formed in the place of the RSFSC in December 1991.

Adige Economy

  • Except for the mountainous southern part, almost all of the land is suitable for agriculture, AC has fertile agricultural land and rich forests (40%), irrigation is done, corn, wheat, sunflower, sugar beet, tea, tobacco are grown, vegetables for the market along the Kuban River, as well as Rose production is important. It has rich oil and gas deposits. The industry is concentrated in the center of Maykop: agro-industry, timber, furniture, perfumery, a sugar factory in Giaginsk, etc.

Annual rainfall in Maykop is 690 mm. The annual average temperature is -2 degrees in January, +22 degrees in July, +10 and +11 degrees in April, and values between +17 and +25 degrees in October. The city of Maykop and its surroundings are rich in hot springs and thermal facilities, it is a resting and treatment center especially popular with patients and retirees.

  • In Maikop, from the mound of Veş'ade (Ошэадэ) or Maikop (Mıyequape) (tumulus, kurgan) belonging to the 3rd millennium BC, 4,500-year-old Meot (Мыут1э; Adige) statues and items were unearthed. Again, from the interpretation of the text on the Maykop Stone in Maikop, it is understood that there was a Meot (Adyge) city in the current location of Maikop 3,300 years ago (Шъаукъо Аслъангуащ, Мыекъуапэ: къэлац1а, ч1ып1ац1а, Адыгэ 00макъ, 25.04 for the internet. see Aslanguaş Ş'avko, "Mıyequape" / The Origin of the Name Maykop, Jineps, June 2007, p.5; Майкопский курган, internet).

Numerous mounds excavated in the region and still expected to be excavated (around 10 thousand piled-up tombs, castle and old settlement remains in Adygea; the number of mounds, fortresses and settlements in the old Circassian place is around 50 thousand) and the old settlement (castle) There are ruins.

  • The southern region (Maykop rayon) is also a tourism area for horseback rides, mountain hikes, camping, mountain and water sports. Prehistoric dolmens in Maykop rayon, Kamennomostski III BC. There are ruins of Maikop "Meşoko" (Мышъэкъо) culture belonging to the millennium BC, "Wild Root Production Park" near the village of Hamışki (Хъымыщк1эй; Хьамыщк1эй), and "Caucasian Nature Reserve Museum" near the village of Guzerıpl (Гъузэрыплъ). However, since the forests that make up about 30 percent of Adygea lands are under protection, investment in tourism cannot be made, and exit routes are investigated by the government of Adygea in order to pass roads through the forests with the support of UNESCO and to establish touristic facilities along these roads. Nowadays, as a result of negotiations with the RF Ministry of Natural Resources, efforts are also being made to redefine the borders (to adopt a more flexible policy) (see. Borders will be redefined in Adygea, 26.02.2009, Circassiancanada, news section).

In Krasnogvardeysk, in the north, there are ruins of the city of Adyge (МыутӀэ) dating from the 3rd millennium BC. There are also famous mounds excavated such as Arım (Kujorskiy kurgan), Çençavşho (Haç'emziy kurgan), Chimdej and Kolyasij (Kabehabl kurgans). In 1955, the "Library of Meot Tablets" was found near the city of Adygeysk (Адыгэкъалэ) and in the village of Neçerezıy. One third of the tablets consist of "Hittite Hieroglyphic Meot (МыутӀэ) tablets" (See also Necmettin Karaerkek, "Yaz", "Nart" magazine, issue 44, p.22-24; Jineps newspaper, January 2007, p.6-7 ).

The main mountains in the southern part are Çuguş (Ç'ığuş; ЧӀыгъушъ-Dry Earth, 3.238 m), Fışte Mountain (Фыштэ, Russian: Fişt; 2.867 m), Oşten (Veş'üten; Ошъутен; 2.804 m), Pseaşho (3.257 m) and Sheep is their peaks. Lake Huko and Legonaka (Лэгъо-Накъэ / Leğo-Naqe; Russian: Lago-Naki) plateaus between the Avtle (Аулъэ) and Huko (Хыкъо) mountains in the southwest are among the places to be visited. For this precious place, also see "Who is the Real Owner of the Highlands of Nefiset Hut, Leğo-Naqe [Lago-Naki]?" (Jineps newspaper, August 2007, issue 21, p.10; Özdemir Özbay, "North Caucasus from Yesterday to Today", Ankara, 1999, p.119-122).

  • In the 1990s, as a result of the real decline in the income of agricultural products and the cessation of state subsidies, a general recession in industry, the closure of some factories and an intense unemployment period, 123,900 people migrated outside of Adygea between 1989 and 2003 to seek employment, 155,400 people. was placed in Adygea, especially in the city of Maikop and Tahtamukay, thus preventing the collapse of the Russian population in AC (See also Nart magazine, issue 36, Ankara, 2003, p.86).


shows. In the first period, returning to the historical homeland, defined by its uncertainties rather than its difficulties, was perceived as leaving everything, breaking down bridges and living only in the homeland. This period, which continued until the 1995s, included a more idealistic and bolder immigration decision. While the people were experiencing great difficulties during the disintegration of the Soviet Union due to the effect of the economic transition period, as Mafe stated before, there was a migration movement from the diaspora to the homeland despite the bread queues. With the economic crisis in 1998 in the Caucasus, where major economic difficulties continued, life became even more difficult with the depreciation of the ruble against the dollar. It can be said that this crisis triggered the decrease in per capita income between 1995-2000 (Bal, Algan and Manga 127). This would increase the mobility difficulties experienced in density between the homeland-diaspora in economic stagnation with ambargo13 applied to Abkhazia and transportation, which is common in those years can be achieved only by ship from Turkey customs because of shuttle trade. By 2005, the economic situation in the Republic of Adygea began to improve, and the transport and economic embargo imposed on the Republic of Abkhazia began to be relatively lifted. In parallel with the developments in the world, the transnational period started with the diversification, ease and cheaper of transportation and communication. Parallel to the problems related to economy and transportation, the return movement, which does not stop but slows down, has begun to be defined with concepts such as being turned towards the homeland and having one foot in the Caucasus in the transnational period.

bottom of page