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The word Dagestan is a combination of the word mountain in Turkish and the suffix -stan, which means place in Persian.

Some regions of Dagestan have been referred to as Lezgistan, Avarya and Tarkov at various times .

Between 1860 and 1920, the word Dagestan was used for the Dagestan Oblast, which is located in the southeastern part of present-day Dagestan.

It reached its present borders in 1921 with the establishment of the Dagestan Özer Soviet Socialist Republic by merging with the Terek oblast.

Persians were defeated by Arabs in Derbent in 664. Although the peoples of the region revolted against the Arabs in 905 and 913, Islam was adopted first in city centers such as Samandar and Kubaçi and then in mountainous regions. By the 15th century, the Christian presence in the region was almost completely erased, only a 10th century church survived in Datuna.

In August 1999, an Islamist group from Chechnya led by Shamil Basayev and Khattab attempted to invade Dagestan in order to establish the Independent Islamic Republic of Dagestan. The occupiers did not find support from the local population and were repulsed by the Russian soldier. [15] In response to this action, Russia re-occupied Chechnya the following year.


(Born September 12, 1965) is a Russian statesman and military leader and is currently the deputy head of the Republic of Dagestan as of October 5, 2020.

Melikov was a Senator from Stavropol Krai from 2019-2020, representing the executive power in office. He was the First Deputy Director of the Federal Service of the Russian national guard and the Commander-in-Chief of the Russian National Guard troops from 2016 to 2019, Melikov was also the Plenipotentiary Representative of the North Caucasus Federal District from 2014 to 2016.

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The word Dagestan is a combination of the word mountain in Turkish and the suffix -stan, which means place in Persian.

Some parts of Dagestan have been referred to as Lezgistan, Avarya and Tarkov at various times.

Between 1860 and 1920, the word Dagestan was used for the Dagestan Oblast, which is located in the southeastern part of present-day Dagestan.

It reached its present borders in 1921 with the establishment of the Dagestan Özer Soviet Socialist Republic by merging with the Terek oblast.




Dagestan's President Ramazan Abdulatipov of the Russian Federation, Turkey and stressing the importance of developing trade and economic relations, "There are many areas for cooperation between Dagestan and Turkey," he said.

Abdulatipov accepted Yalova Mayor Vefa Salman and the accompanying delegation in Dagestan.

That Turkey is among the 10 most important countries with which cooperation and the bilateral trade volume in 2013 Abdulatipov indicating that about 28 thousand dollars, he said that there should be at least $ 1 billion of this figure.

Turkish businessmen to establish business in Dagestan calling Abdulatipov, "Turkey and our development of trade and economic relations with there countrymen are many areas for cooperation between us is very important. Dagestan and Turkey and them, we need to make it effective. On Turkish businessmen to set up business in Dagestan We are ready to provide suitable conditions, "he said.

Expressing satisfaction at the warm hospitality they see in Dagestan Yalova Mayor Salman, between Dagestan and Turkey for over 20 years, noted that the establishment of friendly relations. Emphasizing that they attach importance to Dagestan culture and relations with Dagestan, Salman noted that they are in good relations with the municipality of Hasavyurt. Expressing his satisfaction that Yalova, which is a sister city with Makhachkala, also signed a sister city protocol with Hasavyurt, Salman emphasized that naming a park in Hasavyurt as "Yalova" will further strengthen bilateral relations.

Salman said that "Caucasian House" will be built in Yalova, where representatives of many nations immigrated from Dagestan live.


Dagestan History

The Republic of Dagestan and the North Caucasus (United North Caucasus Republic) was proclaimed on May 11, 1918. This republic was recognized by the Ottoman Empire. Following the Mondros Armistice signed on 30 October 1918, the Ottoman Army withdrew from the Caucasus. Dagestanians fought first with Tsarist Russia and then with the Bolsheviks. With the invasion of Dagestan by the Red Army, the Dagestan Soviet Republic, subject to the Russian Federative Soviet Socialist Republic, was established on 20 January 1921. Dagestan took its current form with the inclusion of Hasavyurt, Kizlar and Acıgöl regions into Dagestan during the Soviet period and the new arrangements made after the dissolution of the Soviets in 1991. In this article, we will try to reveal the relation of Dagestan with Turkish history by explaining the historical, geographical, strategic, economic and social characteristics of Dagestan. In order to understand the history of Caucasia, which is the most mixed region of the world in terms of both ethnic and linguistic aspects, and Dagestan, the most mixed region of the Caucasus, we will evaluate the subject under three sub-headings. After giving a general information about Dagestan, the part up to the independence attempt in 1917 in the first part, the part up to the Republic of Dagestan subordinate to the Russian Federation, which was established as a result of the dissolution of the Soviets in 1991, in the third part, from 1991 to the present. the existing part will be examined. In the last part, problems about Dagestan will be discussed. As a result of Turkish history to do with Dagestan and elucidated the importance of Dagestan for Turkey.

Republic of Dagestan

On December 21, 1917, Ingushetia, Chechnya, Dagestan and all remaining North Caucasus declared their independence from Russia and united under a single country called the "United Highlanders of the North Caucasus" (also known as the North Caucasus Mountainous Republic) and they were also recognized by the forces. They moved the capital to Buynaksk [13]. Tapa Chermoyev, the first prime minister of the established state, was a Chechen statesman. The second prime minister was Ingush statesman Vassan-Girey Dzhabagiev, who also wrote the country's constitution. After the Bolshevik Revolution, the Ottoman armies conquered Azerbaijan and Dagestan, and the region became part of the short-lived North Caucasus Highland Republic. After more than three years of fighting with the White Army and local nationalists, the Bolsheviks triumphed and proclaimed the Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic of Dagestan on 20 January 1921. During the dissolution of the Soviets, Dagestan declared itself a republic, but did not claim sovereignty [14].

Dagestan Geography

Dagestan has a population of 2,910,249 as of 14 October 2010. Turkic peoples Kumuks, Azeris and Nogays constitute 21% of the population.

It is surprising that the population has entered a very rapid growth process, while the Russians and Mountain Jews in the country are emigrating. There is a great immigration especially to Russia and Israel.

The ratio of Russians to the total population has dropped to 4%. Despite this decrease, the most important reason for the continuation of the population growth rate is that the people of Dagestan, who had migrated to all republics on the former Soviet lands for economic reasons since the early 1990s, return to their own countries. Russia, Ukraine and the Central Asian republics have forced them to retreat into their borders for various reasons since the years following the disintegration.

In fact, Dagestan is a country that is not very fertile except for the thin coastal land of the Caspian Sea. 99.9% of the population can read and write and almost all of them can speak more than 2 languages in the best way. Dagestan's population growth rate ranks first in the Russian Republic. The population of Dagestan will catch up to six million in 2050, if this rate of increase is maintained and the people abroad continue to return to their homelands. Makhachkala, Hasavyurt, Buynakski, Kaspiski, Kizilyar, Izberbas and Derbent are among the important cities of the country. Turkic groups live in the lowlands in the north and east of Dagestan, and Caucasian ethnic groups live in the mountainous and plateau settlements that dominate the country.

Physical Structure of Dagestan

The name Dagestan does not mean a tribe, but a geographical-topographic meaning. In Russian, the expression "Strana Gor" is used to mean "the Land of the Mountains".

Dagestan is geographically divided into five regions; In the first region, the Caucasus Mountains and Dagestan inner plateau are located. Rivers such as Sulak, Samur and Arid flowing through the mountains into the Caspian Sea have created deep valleys and cliffs here. There is little rainfall on the generally south-facing slopes of the Caucasus Mountains. Therefore, there is no vegetative life in some regions. The second zone consists of a second mountain belt, in the north of the first zone, with a height of 920 m and consisting of projection peaks. This region is very rainy due to the winds blowing from the north and northwest and is covered with dense forests. The narrow coastal plain between the mountains and the Caspian Sea forms the third region. It is cut by rivers spreading from narrow gorges. The fourth region, which starts where this plain, which contains oil and gas deposits, expands, consists of low and swampy plains and the Terek river delta. Just beyond the delta begins the long and sandy Agragan Peninsula. Finally, the Nogay Steppes covered with sand dunes just north of Terek constitute the fifth region. The climate of this region is hot and dry, and the vegetative life is half desert.

Sulak, which is formed by the merger of the main rivers of Dagestan, Gazi Kumuk, Kara, Avar and Andi Koysu streams and joins the Caspian Sea in the north of Mohaçkale, is the Terek from Chechnya in the further north, and Samur, which flows in the southeast direction and also joins the Caspian. . These rivers, which generally flow parallel to the mountains, play an important role in the formation of the landforms of Dagestan by creating channels and channels with a depth and width of up to 1,000 meters.

Dagestan's climate is generally hot and dry. The average temperature in low parts hovers between 3 and 6 degrees below zero in January, and reaches 23 degrees in July. The Sulak-Terek-Kuma plain, which constitutes the northern part of Dagestan, is the highest place in the country and consists of a waterless and barren steppe that does not exceed 26 meters and descends gradually towards the sea. The coastline of this region is submerged at certain times of the year and the population density is very low.

There are many salt lakes and swamps between Kuma and Terek. Aktaş, Yarıksu, Yamansu and Aksay streams, which are located between Terek and Sulak and disappear on the beaches, are now used as agricultural land. The climate of this plain is extremely dry, except in the northwest regions, where the surface is slightly higher than the coastline. The flat, devoid of rivers and forests, rainless and open to northern winds, the temperature in the far north region rises to 40 degrees in summer, and can drop to 40 degrees below zero in winter.

Agriculture is done in Terek size and in the southwest part with artificial irrigation method. In other parts, various Turkish tribes live as nomads and feed animals. Fishing is done along the coast.

Dagestan is a fertile region in terms of natural wealth. The vegetation of the mountainous region consists of deciduous forests in the valleys and canyons, pine and birch forests on the high hills and Alpine meadows above the tree border. There are dense deciduous forests on the hillsides, interrupted in places by desert vegetation. On the low slopes, fertile maroon soils divided by sparse brown soil areas prevail. Salty swamp soils are common in the Caspian Sea coast.

Dagestan Administrative Regions

Located in the south of the European part of the Russian Federation, Dagestan covers an area of 50,278 km² from the easternmost tip of the northern slope of the Caucasus Mountains. Its south and west are surrounded by the main peak line of the Caucasus Mountains, reaching 3646 meters on Mount Güton and 4480 meters on Mount Pa. Caspian Sea in the east, Kalmyk Autonomous Republic in the north, Chechnya and North Caucasus in the west and northwest, Georgia in the southwest and Azerbaijan in the south. takes place.

Dagestan has a length of 200 kilometers from east to west and 400 kilometers from north to south. Its capital is Makhachkala. Other important cities are Derbent, Kızılyar, İzberbaş and Buynak.

Dagestan Economy

  • Investments in the Republic have increased as the private sector has become more active in production in recent years. Investments are protected by Dagestan and Russian laws. State-of-the-art technology and world standards, new facilities in line with ecological rules have been established: a large factory that processes wool, leather and garments called the "Adam International" joint venture, a chemical plastic factory, a plastic goods production factory called "Progress", a yeast and distillation factory. , Champagne distillation facility, 5th Generation color TV assembly facilities, mineral water production, "Maxi" joint venture high quality shoe factory, "Dagtekstil" spinning factory, "Dagpress" printing house, one of the best in Russia. Samsung (South Korea) company got into operation for modern communication systems. A digital telephone exchange with a subscription of 13,500 has also been installed by this company. A completely renovated construction glass factory in the Dagestanskiye Ogni settlement distributes its goods to the southern region of Russia. Glass container production has also started here.

    As a result of the transformation, the production of military goods in the defense sector has decreased 2.5 times. Production of civilian products and consumer goods increased accordingly. In the last two to three years alone, industrial enterprises have produced more than 50 geese of new products. These include diesel, welding devices, generators, transformers, pressure regulators, mini-telephone exchanges, light aircraft, TV devices, and other electrical and radio equipment. The restructuring was most intensely carried out in large machine production factories and tool making facilities.


    Oil extraction is one of the efficient industries. More than 310 thousand tons of oil and about 715 million cubic meters of natural gas are produced annually. Although the production of oil is not large-scale, its quality is high. High quality petroleum products can be obtained with a simple purification from 90% recycled crude oil boiling at 350o.

  • Factories in this industry are located in Northern Dagestan (Yuzno-Suhokumsk city) and Central Dagestan (Izberbas-Açisu village). 51% of the Republic's foreign currency inputs are obtained from the export of oil and its products. Oil and gas reserves researched by local and foreign companies are promising. In addition to these, brown coal, swamp coal and so on. There are also fuel sources.

  • "Solntse"
    There are reasons why Dagestan is known as a sunny country. There are very few clear days in the country as well as high levels of solar radiation. Therefore, the Russian Academy of Sciences established a scientific research institute here in order to obtain ecologically harmless energy from the sun. For now, the heating, hot water and electricity needs of the institute are provided by solar energy. Solar energy is also used in health facilities, a student camp and a workers' city. The research findings will soon be implemented at homes.

  • One of the most recently designed devices is the pocket heat collector. These slightly plastic-looking devices provide a surprising amount of energy and only need to be exposed to sunlight to charge.

  • A technology has also been developed to neutralize toxic wastes. Considering that the energy used in the world is only one in 3,000 of what comes from the sun, scientists have a long and interesting road to go.

    Dagestan has a wealth of minerals with large amounts of ferrous, non-ferrous, non-metal and can be used as building material. The most interesting and rich pyrite (copper ore) springs in the North Caucasus are found in Kizildere. The country also has drinking water, mineral water, thermal water and industrial water resources. More than 3000 artesian wells have been drilled in the Republic so far.

    Building materials have a special place in natural resources. Dagestan has 36.6% of limestone reserves in the North Caucasus and 15% of glass sand reserves in the Russian Federation. High quality quartz sand, abundant enough to feed the North Caucasus glass industry in the Severnoye region, is almost on the surface.

  • There are also unlimited amounts of SAWN limestone, RUUBLE stone, pebble, pallet sand, DOLOMITE and cement raw materials in the Republic.

    A regional policy has been developed showing the development priorities in the Republic. This policy envisages the complex use of resources, the existing production potential and skilled labor, and insignificant external financing provided that they are mutually beneficial. There is grounds for thinking that with increasing stability and economic growth, the Republic will be more attractive to investors.

  • Special attention is paid to improving the communication infrastructure. The government takes measures and supports investors in order to create the most advanced structures in nature and health tourism. Incentives will also be provided for the development of small and medium-sized enterprises that have high adaptability to market conditions, require low investment, and are attractive to both foreign and domestic investors. Small businesses, as stimuli of production, increase the production of necessary goods, provide employment and modern types of services, run innovative activities and ultimately determine the living standards of the population.

    The landscapes and vegetation of Dagestan vary greatly. Dagestan is unique in Russia in terms of vegetative and climatic diversity. Sub-tropical climate at the Samur Nahri mouth, desert and semi-desert conditions in the north, Alpine tundra and glaciers. There are 4000 varieties in the flora of Dagestan. Among them are quite endemic (local) varieties. There are important opportunities for health tourism in the central and southern parts of the Republic. In this region, which we can also call historical Dagestan, there are many geothermal water (hot springs). It is no exception that mountain landscape and sea view meet them in the same place. Most of these spas are not inferior to, even superior to, the world's famous thermal springs in terms of capacity and healing properties.

Dagestan - Turkey Relations

Fatih Sultan Mehmet Foundation University (FSMV) and the Dagestan State University political of cooperation in Turkey-Dagestan relations in Istanbul, which dealt with the social and literary aspects "from Past to Present Turkey and Dagestan ( Caucasus ) Relations Symposium" was held.

During the symposium held at Fatih Sultan Mehmet Vakıf University Topkapı Campus, economic, political and social relations between the two regions from past to present were thoroughly discussed and suggestions for state policies were made. Turkey's regions in terms of language, voiced by the importance of the unity of religion and partners working on the history of Russian-Caucasus-Turkey relations academics. Academics also emphasized that Turkish states, which were established or influential in the region in the past, still affect the course of relations today.

FSMVÜ Vice Rector Prof. Dr. Fahameddin Başar, Head of the History Department of FSMVÜ Faculty of Letters Prof. Dr. Zekeriya Kurşun, FSMVÜ History Department Faculty Member Prof. Dr. Ahmet Taşağıl, Vice Rector of Dagestan State University Prof. Dr. Gasanov Mogamed Mogamedovich from the same university Prof. Dr. Lecturers and students attended as well as Dagatov Artur Gerevich.


Speaking at the opening of the symposium, FSMVU Faculty of Letters, Head of the History Department, Prof. Dr. Zechariah Lead, "Date with Turkey's Caucasus has many relationships. A lot of work was done on this subject in Turkey. Today many Caucasian Turkey's Ottoman times with the Caucasian immigration is settled. This we pay attention to the fact that at some point in Turkish society merged with the Caucasus, it is integrated, "he said.


Stating that there is a serious Caucasian culture especially in the Black Sea Region, Prof. Dr. Kurşun said, "It is an indispensable geography. In the past, many Caucasians served the Osman army and bureaucracy, and today people of Caucasian origin continue their existence in the Turkish bureaucracy or at various levels of society," he said.


Stating that they aim to re-discuss the relations in a scientific environment, revitalize them and carry them to the future, Prof. Dr. Lead, "In particular, we think it is very important for relations between Turkey and Dagestan. This also requires us to develop our relations with Russia. We consider initiating University as it from Dagestan. Because the population we do a brief research in our index 'Dagestani, dağıst NEW' he're faced with hundreds of name "used expressions.


Stating that geography is an important part of Turkish culture and history, Prof. Dr. Lead, "That is why the revitalization of relations with Dagestan and the way we think they should be reminded of the society. For this purpose, Makhachkala States under the protocol we signed with the University of mutual lecturers, student exchange, and we decided to do as well as scientific activities. Caucasus strategically and economically in Turkey "It is a very serious and important partner for him."


Speaking by expressing his gratitude to the symposium organizers, Dagestan State University Vice Rector Prof. Dr. Gasanov Mogamed Mogamedovich, FSMVU Rector Prof. Dr. He also thanked Musa Duman for his contribution to the studies of Dagestan universities. Noting that the symposium will form the basis for academic studies between universities, Mogamedovich stated that it will also contribute to the relations between states.


Making a presentation at the symposium for Turkey-Dagestan relations FSMV Department of History Prof. Dr. Ahmet Taşağıl also drew attention to the need to develop relations dating back to ancient times and said, "In ancient mythologies, there is a saying," Caucasus are considered the waist of the world. If the Caucasus is dispersed, the world will collapse. " show, "he said. - Istanbul

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