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The government established in Kashgar, located in the southwest of the Tarim Basin, by uniting the independent movement of Muslims, especially the Uighurs, against the Xinjiang Province government that ruled East Turkistan in the 1930s.

The army of Ma Zhongying (馬仲英), a branch of the Muslim Hui military factions that gained fame as the Three Ma of the Northwest (西北 三 馬 xīběi sānmǎ) [1], began to expand into Xinjiang. However, indigenous peoples first started a rebellion in Kumul in 1931 and in Turfan in 1932. The rebellion force led by Hodja Niyaz from Kumullu was attacked by the State army and had to retreat to the west.

In 1933, Mohammed Amin Buğra rebelled in Khotan, south of the Tarim Basin, which was not attacked by Ma Chungying's army. After the rebels took Khotan by firing Khan officers, they advanced to Yarkand and Kashgar and announced the establishment of the Eastern Turkistan Islamic Republic on 12 November 1932, along with their forces freed from Kumlu and Turfan.

Hoca Niyaz was elected as the President of the Republic, representing Kumul, and Sâbit Damulla Abdulbaki, representing Hotan, as the prime minister. First East Turkestan Republic, the United Kingdom and has asked countries such as the recognition of the Republic of Turkey has also been adopted.

In 1933, East Turkistan was in turmoil. On March 12, 1933, a coup attempt by the Chief of General Staff Chen Zhong (陳 中 chén zhōng) with the White Russian troops in the Xinjiang Province government in Urumqi failed.

In response to the threat of Ma Chungying's army, which invaded Turfan, the Xinjiang State government in Urumqi asked the Soviet Union for help and intervention, and in 1934 two brigades of the Red Army entered Xinjiang. The army of Ma Chnagying, escaping from the Red Army, attacked Khotan and destroyed the army of the Eastern Turkistan Islamic Republic. Thus, his republic was destroyed on February 6, 1934.

President Hoca Niyaz and Minister of Defense Muhiti, through the Soviets, agreed with Sheng Shicai (盛世才 shèng shìcái), who was the military inspector of the Xinjiang state government and who will be named "King of Xinjiang", and delivered the prime minister Sâbit Damulla Abdulbaki to the Xinjiang state government. He became the deputy prime minister of the state government.


The historical Uyghur name of the Tarim Basin is Altishahr, which means "Six Cities" in Uyghur. It is the eastern part of the great Turkestan, located in the central part of Central Asia.

Doğu TürkistanMarş
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East Turkistan ( Uyghur : شەرقىي تۈركىستان جۇمھۇرىيىتى Sherqiy Turkestan Jumhuriyit of Chinese :东突厥斯坦共和国; traditional Chinese :東突厥斯坦共和國; pinyin : Dong Tūjuésītǎn Gònghéguó), today China Xinjiang 's northern part in Yining (Chinese:伊寧) 12 November 1944 Soviet political intervention and the Red Army, which was established with military support, on October 20, 1949 the Chinese Communist Party 'What obedient and in December 1949 People's Liberation Army 's with the deployment of China ' e annexed republic.



Trade in East Turkistan

After seeing the commercial place of East Turkistan in history, we understand better why the Chinese governments attacked Turkish countries. The issue that does not lose its importance today is that; The historical roads connecting the Continent China to Siberia, Russia and the countries of Asia Minor pass through East Turkistan and Central Asia. We can say the same thing about Russia's landing on China and India. This is why East and West Turkistan cannot be shared between the two communist countries. We will focus on other reasons as appropriate.

After the historical information above, we can move on to the situation of Turkestan today.

East Turkistan never loses its historical trade function. Today, Red China, realizing the importance of this, has further expanded its transportation in East Turkestan and developed trade with neighboring countries such as Pakistan, India and Russia. It transports the commercial products of East Turkistan from its location to other countries without losing much time.

Until 1942, countries such as Russia, India, China, Germany and England were the leading countries where East Turkestan did trade. Silk, carpets and rugs are exported to India, paint, spices etc. was being imported.

As for Russia; wool, silk, leather, cotton, domesticated animals, intestines, dried fruit, etc. is exported; From there, industrial goods such as fabric, paper, sugar, glass, tea, and cigarettes were imported.

Life in East Turkistan


East Turkistan History

For centuries, East Turkistan could not get rid of its maximal fate, and Russia is trying to struggle for life by being squeezed between the grips of Russia and China on the other.

East Turkistan is 1,828,418 square kilometers in terms of area. East Turkistan; It constitutes a fifth of all Chinese territory, including the Red Chinese ministries such as Tibet, Inner Mongolia, and Manchuria. However, the importance of the region has increased due to the fact that it has rich oil deposits and is the region where energy convergences between China and Russia intersect.

East Turkistan is one of the old settlements of Turks. The first Turkish state to dominate the region is the Huns. B.C. The Hun State, which has been trying to establish the Turkish unity since 300 years, has attached East Turkistan to itself. After this date, East Turkestan geography; It remained under the rule of Hun (BC 220-AD 386), Tabgaç (386-534) and Göktürk (550-840). Uyghur Turks settled in the region in 840.

After the Kyrgyz entered the Uighur capital in 840, the Uighurs could not recover. Some of them migrated to the North China side (Kansu region) and some to the present-day East Turkistan (Turfan and Kaşgar) side. The Uyghur State established in this region continued its existence until the Cengiz invasion.

Ngo-nie Tegin, brother of Vu-hi Tegin, was at the head of the Uyghur Turks who migrated to East Turkistan. They elected Mengli, the nephew of the Uyghur Khan who was killed by the invaders in 840 in Kara-balasagun, and in 856 established the 3rd Uyghur State within the territory of East Turkistan. The Uyghur State ruled until the unification with the Karakhanid State towards the end of the 10th century.

The Uyghurs who migrated to the Yedisu side have mingled with the Uyghur Turks (Kashgar, Yarkent, Hoten) who came to settled life here before them and came to the south of East Turkistan during the war with the Tibetans. The Uyghurs united with the Karluk Turks and established the Karakhanid State in 880. East Turkistan later fell under the rule of the Qara Hodja Uyghur Khanate (846–1218) and the Turkish-Mongolian Emperor (1218–1759).

The occupation of China began in 1750 and lasted until 1862. During this time, there were 42 rebellion movements in East Turkistan. In 1863, Mehmed Yakup Bey succeeded in establishing a state in Kashgar. This state received the assistance they wanted from Abdulaziz. Mehmed Yakup Bey, his biggest support is II. It was seen by Abdulhamid.

Despite the support, the established state did not last long. After Yakup Bey's death in 1877, China immediately attacked East Turkistan. He occupied the whole of East Turkistan on May 18, 1878. On November 18, 1884, by order of the Chinese emperor, it was directly attached to the Empire as the 19th province under the name of Shin-cang (Xin Jian "New Land").

As a result of the struggle for independence in the city of Kumul in 1931, a victory against the Chinese in the region was won and the Eastern Turkistan Islamic Republic was established in Kashgar on November 12, 1933.Hoca Hadji Niyaz was declared president.

Russia, which supported the rebellion because of the Russian-Chinese rivalry, later helped to overthrow the established state by supporting China after the rebellion, fearing that it would be a bad example to the Turks under its rule (West Turkistan).

The struggle continued and in 1944, he won again against the Chinese in Gulca. Supporting the uprising, Russia helped establish the Eastern Turkistan Republic in Gulja in October 1944. This republic, which included the cities of Gulca, Tarbagatay and Ili, defeated the Chinese forces in the region. However, Russia was afraid of these rapid developments and forced the rulers of this Republic to come to an agreement with the Chinese. In 1946, a text of 11 articles was signed between the two governments and a unified government was established. Thus, this state disappeared as a result of Russia's negative attitude.

Meanwhile, Mao has managed to dominate China. In September 1949, after the Chinese troops in East Turkestan declared their loyalty to the communist Chinese government, China invaded East Turkistan without using any military force.

East Turkistan Republic

The rich resources of East Turkistan are not reflected to the people living here. In addition, China's policy of settling Chinese immigrants in East Turkistan increases the unrest and further shakes the non-existent trust in China. The Chinese administration prohibited the East Turkestan Turks from having more than 2 children, but brought hundreds of thousands of Chinese immigrants from the inner regions every year and settled them in the region.The number of Chinese people in East Turkistan, which was 250 thousand in 1949, has reached 10 million today as a result of the population transfer. The Chinese Administration clearly states that they will settle 150 million Chinese people in East Turkistan in the 21st century.

East Turkistan Geography

East Turkistan with a surface area of 1,828,418 km2, which includes the Cungarya basin between the Tanrı Mountains, Altay and Kurum mountains, agriculture and Turfan basin, constitutes 1/5 of the whole Chinese land. It is 3 times the size of France and 17 times the size of Hungary, one of the largest states in Europe. It ranks 19th among the world countries in terms of land size.


Taklamakan Desert, known as the Golden Cradle of the world civilization, Altuntağ Natural Park known as nature's paradise, Silk Road known as Eurasia Bridge, God and Buğda Lakes, one of the highest lakes in the world, as well as East Turkistan, which has thousands of lakes and rivers, 16 cities, 86 districts are available. The Chinese govern these lands by dividing them into 1 central city, 8 provinces and 5 autonomous districts.


East Turkistan is one of China's most backward regions. Transport is underdeveloped and 70% of the population with low living standards are engaged in agriculture and animal husbandry. One of the biggest dangers in the region is the underground atomic experiments carried out in the Lop Nor desert and numbered more than 20 to this day. Cancer diseases, birth defects and radiation from products have reached dangerous levels in the environment.

East Turkistan Population

Since the census does not include international observers, the figures given above are estimates and are given according to the Chinese abortion (birth control) policy. The population of East Turkestan, which is shown low in Chinese official statistics, is actually more than 40 million according to the estimates of the people of East Turkestan, of which 30 million are Muslim Turks.
Some organizations broadcasting about East Turkistan state that even these numbers do not reflect the truth. In East Turkistan, in 1949, the Uyghurs constituted 75% of the population, 11% Kazakhs and 5% other Muslim Turkic tribes, while in 1990 the proportion of Chinese people increased to 45%. The increase in the Chinese population is due to the Communist Chinese government's effort to settle the Chinese in East Turkistan and reduce the Muslim Turkish population to a minority. The assimilation policy of the Chinese has been applied more violently since the independence of the Muslim Turkish states in West Turkestan. The Chinese administration tries to kill the spirit of unity of the people by dividing the regions into parts such as autonomous provinces and autonomous districts in order to eliminate the closeness of Muslim Turks with each other. Especially the Chinese settled in the Cungarya Basin have established autonomous provinces and districts in this region in terms of their security. Kazakh governors are appointed to the provinces with the majority of Uyghurs, Kyrgyz to the provinces with the majority of Kazakhs, and Uzbek governors to one with the majority of the Kyrgyz, and by bringing the differences in "length" to the fore, hostility among the brotherly peoples is fueled. The Chinese government, on the one hand, resettles Chinese people of Han nationality in East Turkestan, on the other hand, in order to reduce the population ratio of Muslims there, it uses restriction of the number of children in Muslim families, forced sterilization of the parents, forced abortion and birth control methods. In addition, Chinese immigrants brought in later are settled in fertile regions and all kinds of services are provided to these regions.

East Turkistan Administrative Structure

The establishment of the People's Republic of China was declared in October 1949. After the proclamation of the republic, based on the principle of "Regional Autonomy of National Minorities" specified in the Chinese constitution, first autonomous units were established in East Turkistan. With the establishment of the first Ili Kazakh Autonomous Oblast in 1954, a total of 5 autonomous oblasts and 6 autonomous sub-districts were established. Then, on October 1, 1955, the "Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region" was established. Thus, the Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region (East Turkestan) was transformed into autonomous provinces, fragmented into small autonomous units. According to the "National Autonomous Law" in the Constitution, national autonomous regions of each nation are local sovereignty units affiliated with the central people's government.In addition to functioning as normal local administrative units of the state, the autonomous units specified in the Constitution and laws, the political, economic and cultural characteristics of the nation in the said regions. can also determine local legal principles. The rights of nations were divided into 5 autonomous oblasts, 8 provinces and 3 independent municipalities, which are directly subordinate to the autonomous region government of the Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region (East Turkistan).
Autonomous Oblasts: Ili Kazakh Autonomous Oblast, Sanci Hui Autonomous Oblast, Bayınğulun Mongolian Autonomous Oblast, Börütala Mongolian Autonomous Oblast and Kizilsu Kirghiz Autonomous Oblas.
Autonomous Sub-districts: There are 6 autonomous sub-districts such as Mori autonomous sub-district, Barköl Kazakh autonomous sub-district, Kubuksar autonomous sub-district, Çapçal Şive autonomous sub-district, Karaşehir Huizu autonomous sub-district, Taşkorgan Tajik autonomous sub-district.
Provinces (provinces): Kumul, Turfan, Altay, Tarçağtay, Aksu, Kaşgar, Hoten.
Independent Municipalities: It consists of Urumqi, Karamay, and Şihenz, and these municipalities are not connected to the provincial or autonomous oblast administration of the region where they are located, like other metropolitan municipalities. These are subordinate to the autonomous region government such as Provinces and autonomous oblasts. The cities within the Autonomous oblast and the provinces are as follows: There are 8 cities such as Kashgar, Gulca, Kumul, Korla, Kuytung, Sanci, Aksu, Hoten. In addition, there are 78 districts of autonomous oblast and provinces. The cities of economic and commercial importance will be briefly introduced below. Urumqi City: (East Turkistan) Xinjiang is the capital of the Uyghur Autonomous Region and is a political, economic and transportation center.
It is located in the north of the Urumqi Tanrı mountains and in the south east of the Cungarya basin.
Kashgar City: It is an old Turkish city on the edge of the Red Sea (river) west of the agricultural basin and has a history of more than two thousand years. Kashgar south is one of the important political, economic and cultural centers of East Turkistan.
The city of Gulja: It is the capital city of the Kazakh autonomous oblast, 100 km from the border of Kazakhstan in the west of East Turkistan. away, is located in the valley of Ili Derya. At the same time, Gulca is an important trade center opening to the Central Asian Turkic Republics.
Karamay City: Located in the west of the Cungarya basin, it is the first oil city established in the desert since the 1950s.
Şihenze City: It is located on the edge of the Manas river to the north of the Tanrı Mountain. This city is a new city that started to be established since the 1960s. The infrastructure of the city is excellent, its surroundings are beautiful, it is a modern city where industry, agriculture and trade are combined. Its repercussion to 90% of its population is Chinese. A situation such as the fragmentation of East Turkistan into small national autonomous units has not happened in other provinces of China.

East Turkestan Economy

  • East Turkistan is a very rich country in all respects. In this country, there are many precious metals such as gold, silver, uranium, copper, coal, salt and crystal, especially oil wealth.


  • It is impossible to imagine the industry of the current People's Republic of China without the oil, uranium, wolfram, tin lead, gold, iron, coal and other mines of East Turkestan.


  • According to the researches of geologists, the amount of existing oil reserves in the agricultural basin in the south of East Turkistan is 18 billion tons, with the exception of Karamay and Turfan oil fields in the north of East Turkistan. Coal reserves are more than 1 trillion 50 billion tons.

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