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Karakalpakya or Karakalpakstan is an autonomous republic of Uzbekistan. It is located in the western part of Uzbekistan. Its capital is Nukus. Karakalpakya covers the historical Khwarezm lands. Its area is 165,000 km2. The population of Karakalpakstan is approximately 1,800,000.

Historical records of Karakalpaks, who lived together with Kazakhs for many years, only date back to the 16th century. It is reported that their old homeland was on the Volga coast between Kazan and Astrakhan, and from there they migrated to Amuderya. Apart from Karakalpaks, Uzbeks and Kazakhs, who settled in the Amuderya region in the 18th century, a small number of Turkmen and Russian minorities also live in the region. Karakalpakstan joined Uzbekistan in December 1936. On December 1, 1990, the autonomy of Karakalpakistan was accepted by the Supreme Council of the Republic and it was approved as the first and only autonomous republic of Uzbekistan. The proportion of people living in urban areas is around 48%. Major cities are Nukus, Hoceyli, Biruni, Tahyataş, Çimbay, Turtkul and Altıkıl.


(December 20, 1947 - July 31, 2020) - Soviet, later Uzbek state political figure, Chairman of the Jokargi Kenges (Parliament) of the Karakalpakstan Republic. Senate Member, Deputy Chairman of the Oliy Assembly Senate of the Republic of Uzbekistan. President of the Republic of Karakalpakstan, Jokargi Kenges.

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In the early ages of the Middle Ages, the Karaborkli tribe appears to be the Pecheneg tribe near the Aral Lake. In scientific works, it is written that the names Karaborkli, Karakalpak and Black Kulahan (Black Hats) have the same meaning. [1] They are referred to as Çorniye Klobuki in old Russian annals and as Karabörklü in Arabic sources.

Today, known as Karakalpak, from this nation, in historical sources, only XVI. century end (1578) is mentioned.

Even if we say that the Turkish race is a single nation, it is natural for some Turkish societies to be referred to by different names due to the historical processes. Today, even we, Anatolian Turks, do not even hear the names of many Turkish communities. The spread of our race to very large areas, the minority in different societies and the weakening of kinship ties unfortunately have been effective in this. One of these unknown Turkish communities is undoubtedly the Karakalpak Turks. I am sure that if we go out and do a street interview today, few people will even know where these Turks are.




Today and from Karakalpakstan has existed as an autonomous state within the Republic of Uzbekistan Karakalpak living in this region in Turkey on Turkish studies are quite limited. There are mostly literature / language and history studies on Karakalpak Turks. On the Literature and Language of the Karakalpak Turks, Prof. Dr. Ceyhun Vedat UYGUR has important works. On the subject of Karakalpak Turks and History of Karakalpakstan, Prof. Dr. Being a student of Patience KAMALOV, Prof. Dr. Salih YILMAZ has studies. We found it appropriate to work on "Karakalpak Turks Folk Beliefs" because of our support for these studies. The source of the folk beliefs of Karakalpaks is actually connected with the Hun / Göktürk periods. Although the folk beliefs of the Turkish communities living in Central Asia are generally similar, there are some differences in relation to the communities they interact with. Although Karakalpaks mostly show the Kipchak characteristics, since they interact with the Oghuz groups, they bear the characteristics of both Turkish wings. In addition, since Karakalpaks have settled down in the late period, both oral culture and folk beliefs are still alive. While preparing this thesis, the researches conducted in the Karakalpakstan Academy of Sciences were examined and also the beliefs we witnessed personally were also discussed. The beliefs of Karakalpaks, which is a small branch in the Turkic World, are actually important in terms of bearing the traces of the old Turkish beliefs. I hope this thesis will inspire future studies.

The Ancestors and Origins of the Karapapak Turks



Amuderya region has been the main habitat of Karakalpaks. Amuderya (Ceyhun or Öküz) is the major river of West Turkistan. The two rivers of Central Asia, Amuderya and Sırderya, played a major role in the economic life of West Turkistan. The length of Amuderya is 2,400 km, and its beginning is slightly ahead of where the waters coming from two different sides mix. Amuderya has formed a delta where it flows into the Aral Sea. 1 Amuderya and Aral lake region, Karakalpaks VII-V and XIII BC. century has been its homeland. Karakalpaks have appeared on the stage with their own names in this region. The peoples of Central Asia living in this region shared the same fate with the Turkmens from the Oguz tribe, Kazakhs from the Kipchak tribe and the Khorezm Uzbeks. In Central Asia, the states of Bactria, Sogdiyana, Parfa and Horezm were established. Each state had its own beliefs, customs and traditions. Karakalpaks are a people from Turkish tribes in Central Asia. Karakalpakça, spoken by Karakalpaks, is derived from Chagatay Turkish. Folk literature of Oghuz and Kangli Turks and Kipchak Turks in Karakalpaks has been well preserved. Because Karakalpaks lived in the lands of these communities and mixed with them. For example, the Alpamis epic of Karakalpaks reflects the culture of the Oghuzs in the best way. The Koblan and Toktamış epics of the Karakalpaks reflect the Kipchak culture. 2 VII. The Turgish people, who established their own khanate in the 16th century, have survived for half a century. The Turgish people, who were divided into two afterwards, were called "yellow" and "black". The "yellow" ones, Mukrin, are the ancestors of today's Kyrgyz. The "black" ones are thought to be the ancestors of the Avars and Karakalpaks. Gumilev, in particular, seems to have embraced this idea. X-XI. Century, the descendants of the Avars or the ancestors of today's Karakalpaks settled in the lands of ancient Russia under the name of Çerniye Klobuki (1072). Although the name of Karakalpaks is thought to come from the black hat they wear, according to some researchers, this name comes from their hair models.


Social structure and life styles of Karakalpak tribes are very close to the social structure of other Turkish tribes and communities living in central Asia (Kazakh, Turkmen, Uzbek). The life styles of the peoples living in Central Asia (Uzbek, Kazakh, Turkmen, Tajik) have determined the climate of this region, the flow directions of the rivers, the lakes, the vegetation and the animals living in this region. For example, drought has been one of the most important factors affecting the fate of Karakalpaks. Central Asia has witnessed a gradual drought since the beginning of historical times. The drought narrowed the land on which the nomads roamed, mixing them with the settled culture outside their territory.10 Karakalpak also affected the social life of the Great Silk Road. Silk Road II. It was opened in the century. This way XV. It continued its importance until the century. Silk was transported from China to Europe and gold to China by this route. Since the Silk Road passed through Central Asia, some of the earnings were shared by the people there. This road was not only a trade, but also a means of cultural exchange. Therefore, communities on this road have been influenced by this culture. Caravanserais were built on the Silk Road. The merchants were staying here and providing jobs to the tradesmen in the region. The Silk Road was not just a highway. There was also a waterway. It was from India to Amuderya, from Horezm to the Caucasus and the Black Sea. Archaeological remains found in the regions of Khorezm and Karakalpakstan are the ruins of cities and towns built for the Silk Road.

Karakalpaks, who are nomads, are divided into tribes they call "ru" and people of the same height are considered relatives. Therefore, Karakalpaks of the same height cannot marry each other. These strict rules still persist. Karakalpak tribes live in villages called "aul" and these villages still exist.


Karakalpaks have been growing wheat, millet, rice, barley and corn since ancient times. Legumes include mung, beans, sesame and hemp. They were taking oil from sesame and hemp. Since they also used alfalfa as animal food, they used to grow alfalfa. Watermelon, melon and pumpkin, turnips, onions and carrots were grown as vegetables. Horticulture has been learned from Uzbeks; they grew grapes, plums, peaches, pears, and apples. For example, it is known by everyone that Fergana is the country of grape. The tools used by farmers are wooden trowel (plow), ketpen, sickle, shovel. Karakalpaks met their meat and milk needs by dealing with animal husbandry. Ox and cows were more used to look after. There were also goats and sheep, but it was not very common. They were making a living by selling their animals. They used to trade with Kazakhs, Turkmen and Uzbeks. They made and sold wool carpets, felt and dormitory ornaments.


Settlements are the Amuderya Delta and the south of the Aral Lake. This region is also known as Karakalpakistan. Of the Karakalpaks, which number an average of 650,000 in the world, approximately 400,000 of them are Karakalpakistan, an autonomous republic of today's Uzbekistan (Uzbek: Qoraqalpog'iston Respublikasi; Karakalpak: Қарақалпақстан Республикасы or Qarakalpaqstan Respublikarasi).


The famous Mahtumkulu (Turkmen: Magtymguly, Persian: مخدومقلی فراغی, Makhdumqoli Faraghi) The strong poems of the Turkmen poet did not affect only Turkmen poets; XIX such as Berdak (Karakalpakça: Berdaq G'arg'abay ulı), Acıniyaz (Karakalpakça: A'jiniyaz Qosıbay ulı) and Gunhoca. century Karakalpak poets as well. They have translated most of Mahtumkulu's poems into Berdak and Acıniyaz, Karakalpak Turkish; these poems were spread among the public and later some of them were confused with the poems of Karakalpak poets. Most of these are popularly known as Acıniyaz's and Berdak's poems. The poems of Mahtumkulu, whose fame spread among Karakalpaks, have been the folk songs of Karakalpak weddings.

  • Acıniyaz (literary title Ziywar) is one of the most magnificent representatives of Karakalpak rooted literature in the 19th century.

  • Berdak is a famous Karakalpak poet

A poem by Berdak;

Mu'yten, Qon'irat, Qıtay, Qıpshaq

Keneges, Mang'ıt, Aqpıshaq

Ba'ri horseback uriw qaraqalpaq

U'rgenishti jaylag'an eken .......

Qaraqalpaq U'rgenishten qashtı

Buxara ta'repke hanged dep.

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