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KAZAKHISTAN

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Kazakhstan, officially the Republic of Kazakhstan, is an independent state with Turkic people in Central Asia and Eastern Europe. Kazakhstan is one of the seven independent Turkish states today and is a member of the Turkic Council and TURKSOY. It is the ninth largest country in the world with an area of 2.724.900 km².

A Turkish state located in Central Asia. To the north is the Russian Federation, the Ural Mountains and Southern Siberia, to the east, Mongolia and East Turkistan, to the south, Kyrgyzstan, Uzbekistan, Aladag, Tanrı Mountains and Aral Lake, and to the west the Caspian Sea. The east and west borders are 3000 km, and the north and south borders are 1500 km.

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Kasım Cömert Kemeloğlu Tokayev is the current president and politician of Kazakhstan. After the resignation of Nursultan Nazarbayev, who served as president for 29 years, he became the acting president and became the president by coming first in the elections held on 10 June.

KazakistanMarş
00:00 / 01:42


Akzakis and today was the first country to recognize the independence of Kazakhstan-Turkey relations, Turkey has a strategic partner's level.
Kazakhstan-Turkey over the past year between the Kazakh-Turkish diplomatic relations contacts brotherhood and friendship, look at the history and cultural heritage of the peoples, founded on mutual trust and respect that occurs platform.
In addition, the close cooperation between the two countries in the commercial-economic and social sphere, military-technical issues, and regional and international security areas stand out as other important factors in the strengthening of relations. In addition, Kazakh-Turkish military and technical relations are developed on the basis of strategic partnership principles. The two countries cooperate within the framework of the United Nations, the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe, the Organization of the Islamic Conference, the Organization for Economic Cooperation and other international organizations.

KAZAKHSTAN INTRODUCTION VIDEO

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KAZAKHSTAN - TRADE TURKEY FRIENDSHIP


Akzakis and today was the first country to recognize the independence of Kazakhstan-Turkey relations, Turkey has a strategic partner's level.
Kazakhstan-Turkey over the past year between the Kazakh-Turkish diplomatic relations contacts brotherhood and friendship, look at the history and cultural heritage of the peoples, founded on mutual trust and respect that occurs platform.
In addition, the close cooperation between the two countries in the commercial-economic and social sphere, military-technical issues, and regional and international security areas stand out as other important factors in the strengthening of relations. In addition, Kazakh-Turkish military and technical relations are developed on the basis of strategic partnership principles. The two countries cooperate within the framework of the United Nations, the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe, the Organization of the Islamic Conference, the Organization for Economic Cooperation and other international organizations.

KAZAKHSTAN History

Kazakh people, who lived in nomadic life for long centuries, settled in the Central Asian geography. Kazakh nation, whose language, religion, history and culture are common because they are one of the peoples of Turkish origin, gained independence at the end of the 20th century after experiencing tribal and colonial periods. Since its independence in 1991, the Republic of Kazakhstan has rapidly developed economically and socially by using its rich underground and aboveground resources, and has become one of the centers of attraction in the world thanks to its political stability and security. Kazakhstan, which has good neighborliness and friendly relations with the world's great states such as China and Russia, is the 9th country in the world in terms of area, but its population has not yet exceeded 16,750. Besides being a multinational and multi-religious-cultural country, Kazakhstan is one of the richest oil, gas, gold, coal and grain centers in the world.

Republic of Kazakhstan

Kazakh people, who lived in nomadic life for long centuries, settled in the Central Asian geography. Kazakh nation, whose language, religion, history and culture are common because they are one of the peoples of Turkish origin, gained independence at the end of the 20th century after experiencing tribal and colonial periods. Since its independence in 1991, the Republic of Kazakhstan has rapidly developed economically and socially by using its rich underground and aboveground resources, and has become one of the centers of attraction in the world thanks to its political stability and security. Kazakhstan, which has good neighborliness and friendly relations with the world's great states such as China and Russia, is the 9th country in the world in terms of area, but its population has not yet exceeded 16,750. Besides being a multinational and multi-religious-cultural country, Kazakhstan is one of the richest oil, gas, gold, coal and grain centers in the world.

Geography of Kazakhstan

One-fifth of the country's land is covered with mountains. The other part consists of plains, hilly plains and plateaus. Ustyurt Plateau extends to the south of the Caspian Collapse, which dominates the western and southwestern parts, and Karadağ and Akdağ lie on the Mangışlak Peninsula. The Caspian Collapse separates the Ural Plateau and Mugodjar Hills from the wide Turan Plain. Sands previously carried by dried up rivers formed Kızılkum Desert in the south, Karakum Desert in the middle, and Big and Small Barsuki deserts in the north. In the north, the height of the mountains reaches 1500 meters. Uludağ is located in the west of the country's lands, and the mountain range known as Cengizdağ is located in the east. High mountain ranges in the east and southeast are split by valleys. Çungarya Aladağları enters the territory of Kazakhstan from the south of the depression where the Balkaş Lake is located, the Tarbagatay Mountain range from the south, and the Listvyaga, Holzun and Tigirek mountain ranges, which are the continuation of the Altay mountain range, from the east. The mountains of God lie on the border of Kyrgyzstan. The Muyunkum Desert enters into the interior of Montenegro.

There are thousands of small streams in Kazakhstan. Most of these rivers flow into the Caspian Sea, Aral, Balkaş and Tengiz lakes. The rivers that cross the territory of Kazakhstan and pour into the Arctic Sea are Irtiş, Isim and Tobul. Most streams dry up in the summer. Its main rivers are Ural and Seyhun. There are many dams on the Seyhun for preventing floods and for irrigation.

Within the borders of the country, there are nearly fifty thousand lakes with variable water levels, some of which dry up in certain months. The 2320 km coast of the Caspian Sea remains within the borders of Kazakhstan. Other important lakes are Aral, Balkaş, Zaysan, Alakol, Tengiz and Seletitengiz.

Physical Structure of Kazakhstan

The relief of Kazakhstan is quite plain. The country generally consists of plains, these plains are called "Kazakhstan steppes". The country rises from the west to the east, starting from the shores of the Caspian coast - 26 meters below the Earth's sea level - towards the east, high mountains are encountered. These mountains; Altay, Tarrogtay, Çungurya Aladağları. The average altitude of the country is 387 m. The lowest point is Vpadina Kaundy near the Caspian - with a height of 132 meters. The highest point is the Han Tengri Mountain, where the borders of 3 countries - Kazakhstan, China and Kyrgyzstan - meet. The height of the Han Tengri mountain is about 7000 m. The mountains in the country are generally active, and the mountainous areas of the country are tectonically active.

Kazakhstan is home to large and small lakes and streams. Streams having closed basins, which is the general situation in Central Asia, is also encountered in Kazakhstan. Another river that can be a good example for rivers with closed basins is Sriderya (Seyhun), which is of vital importance for agriculture. Sriderya flows from the southern part of the country along the northwest direction and pours into the Aral lake, but it must be said that the Aral has come to a point of drying due to excess water use. Most of the country's rivers flow into Caspian, Aral and Balkaş. However, Irtysh, Isim and Tobol, which are located in the north of Kazakhstan and which are tributaries of the Obi river, pass into the Russian Federation and flow into the Arctic Ocean.

Kazakhstan Population and Social Life

The population of Kazakhstan is around 17.000.000. Its capital city is Alma-Ata and its population is 1.200.000. 39.7% of the population is Kazakh, 37.8% is Russian, 5.8% is German, 5.4% is Ukrainian, 4% is Tatar and Uzbek, 7.3% belongs to other nationalities. Its main cities are Uralsk, Ahtubinsk, Guryev, Bishkek, Karaganda, Aralsk.

Except for the large settlements in Kazakhstan, the old nomadic feature is still maintained. Since most of the people earn their living from animal husbandry, they go to the plateaus they call “teahouse” in summer and shelter in winter quarters called “winter quarters” in winter. Thus, they continue their nomadic life.

Education: Since most of the people lived nomadic lives before the communist revolution of 1917, educational activities were not developed in the Kazakhs. There were many madrasas in the settlement centers. After the revolution, the Russian education system started to be implemented in the region. Although primary and secondary education was conducted in Kazakh, Russian education in kindergartens and colleges compelled Kazakh youth to learn Russian.

Education in Kazakhstan is compulsory and free of charge between the ages of 7-17. Russian and Kazakh education is offered at schools. There are also schools that teach in minority languages. In areas with low population, there are boarding schools for secondary school children. The number of vocational education schools is quite high. There are 8689 secondary schools and 243 technical high schools across the country.

The first university in Kazakhstan was established in Kirov in 1934. In 1948 the Kazakh Academy of Sciences was established. There are more than 35 institutes affiliated with this academy. There are also around 40 colleges.

Kazakhstan Economy

The country's economy is based on agriculture, animal husbandry and mining. Since most of the land is covered with desert and mountains, arable land is scarce. Most of this land is pastureland. Agriculture in Kazakhstan can be considered in four regions: 1) Resident agricultural region: Especially wheat, millet, sunflower and cattle are grown in the region. 2) Transition zone: Millet is grown in this area and sheep are fed. 3) Animal feeding zone: Sheep are fed here. Also, horses and camels are bred in Aktübe. 4) The region where artificial irrigation is performed: In this region, cotton, beet, tobacco, hemp, oilseeds and rice used in industry are grown.

Kazakhstan industry has developed depending on mining. Before leaving the Soviet Union, it covered most of the country's raw material needs. Major industrial establishments are iron, steel, cement, fertilizer, sugar, flour, canned food, medicine, synthetic yarn, X-ray equipment factories. Most of the workforce in the industry works in coal mines and oil facilities.

Transportation: Transportation in Kazakhstan is provided by road, rail and air. The railway network is 21,400,000 km long and weaves the country like a net. The length of the highways is 189,000 km. Many cities have airports.

Kazakhstan-Turkey Relations

After the disintegration of the Soviet Union, the Republic of Turkey and the Turkish world history is connected with the spiritual roots, direct relations with the new independent republics that have occurred in this region has gained by establishing development opportunities. Despite certain problems and criticisms in the past quarter century, the bilateral also made significant progress in multilateral relations. In the context of relations with Turkey, Asia's rising star called as Kazakhstan's cooperation potential of efficient use is of paramount importance. At this point the satisfaction level of relations between Turkey and Kazakhstan has a satisfactory quality. One of the issues that need to be dealt with and examined in multi-dimensional relations is the projects carried out in the field of education between the two countries. These projects attract attention in terms of increasing both bilateral relations and cooperation opportunities in the Turkic World in general.

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