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Chechnya, officially the Chechen Republic, commonly known as Chechnya, is one of the federal regions of the Russian Federation. It is located in the North Caucasus, 100 kilometers from the Caspian Sea. The capital of the republic is the city of Grozny. The population of the republic is 1,268,989 people.

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Ramazan Ahmetoviç Kadirov is the third head of state of Chechnya in the Russian Federation. On 9 May 2004 in Grozny II. He is the son of Ahmet Kadirov, the first President of Chechnya, who lost his life as a result of an assassination by Chechen militants during the World War II victory celebrations.

Chechens are indigenous Caucasian people living in the northeastern part of the Caucasus, around the Sunja and Argun rivers. They call themselves Nohchi. This name comes from the tribe of Chechens called Nohchmekhahoi and the lands of this tribe.




In August 1996, the Chechens succeeded in taking the capital of Chechnya, Grozny (Cevherkale) from the Russian Army in a comprehensive attack. Russia, which has suffered heavy losses since 1994 and is also dealing with a deep economic crisis, agreed to withdraw from Chechnya with the Treaty of Hasavyurt on 31 August 1996. With the Hasavyurt Agreement and the cooperation agreement on May 21, 1997, while accepting to recognize the independence of Chechnya in 2001, it agreed to take gradual steps during this period, to protect the relations between the two sides and to compensate the damage caused by the war in this framework.

August 1996 concerning the Chechen victory in an official statement was made in Turkey, the press was especially Turkey Islamic Press he praises the victory. Although the Russian-Chechen agreements during this period did not establish official relations with Turkey Chechnya.

Private individuals and organizations from Turkey to end the war in Chechnya during this period and were able to get in relations with Russia due to open their way to Chechnya.

January 27, 1997 The winner of the presidential election in Chechnya Aslan Maskhadov's inauguration is not sent to anyone in Chechnya, officials from Turkey has created frustration. Chechnya in 1995 Dudayev's Islamic sharia law, depending on the explanation, the transition to a state order since 1997 about the efforts to enact some media organizations in Chechnya in Turkey "backwardness" signed the accuser news.

Source: Chechnya and Russia rooted past, our friendship with Turkey's Dreams


Chechnya History

People who witnessed the 21st century could not make enough sense for the heroic resistance of a handful of people to the once superpower Russian armies. According to the Western media, those who resisted were rebels. But for the questioning wisdom, it was not very convincing to press with the identity of rebellion without a nation against such oppressions. In fact, there was a story of resistance in Chechnya. This story is very deep and goes far back. This story had to be read in order to fully interpret the war in Chechnya. First of all, they took the meaning of this resistance from history. In short, every Chechen had a legacy inherited from his grandfathers: resistance for freedom. God shared this heritage equally. Here is the story of the Chechens:

Chechnya - The territory of the Republic of Ichkeria was occupied by the Russian army as it entered the 20th century after a 400-year war. The end of the Caucasian war is shown as 1859 in official historical sources. This is also the delivery date of Imam Samil. However, active military movements in the territory of Chechnya were led by Samil's regent Baysungur, Magomed (Muhammed) Emin and Chechnya Imam Alibek Haci until 1878.

continued. Military actions against the Russian occupation rule in Chechnya continued until 1876. Hasuha Magomadov, one of the last Chechen military leaders, was killed in 1876.

1780 Chechens resisted the occupation of Tsarist Russia. The leader of the jihad was Seyh Mansur. Imam Mansur was arrested in 1791 and martyred in Slisselarg prison in 1794.

1816 General Yermalov was appointed commander of the Caucasus. Yermalov prepared a large army and started the massacre in the North Caucasus.

1828 The war spread to the Caucasus. Resistance against the Russians continued under the leadership of Imam Gazi Muhammed and Imam Hamzat, who organized Muslims in Dagistan.

1834 When Imam Hamzat was martyred, Imam Samil began to lead the resistance. Forces led by Taso Hadji also joined the ranks of Imam Samil.

The Caucasian invasion of the Tsarist Empire in 1839 continued with Russian raids in Chechen lands. All the peoples of the North Caucasus under the leadership of Imam Samil started gazavat. The National Azadlik jihad, which went down in Russian history as the Caucasian War, lasted exactly 25 years.

1859 The Russians occupied the last stop of the Chechens, the village of Vedeno. Imam Samil fell prisoner. But the Chechens were not. The war continued until 1864.

1877 Chechens and Ingus revolt again. After two years of fierce war, the Russians exiled Chechens and Ingus from their homeland and began settling Russian Cossacks in the region. Thereupon Chechens and Ingus started guerrilla warfare. Zalimhan, under his leadership, the mujahids fought against the Russian Cossacks until 1917.

11 May 1918 After the collapse of the Russian Tsarist Empire, the "North Caucasus Republic" was established in the Caucasus under the leadership of Tapa Chermoyev, one of the Chechen political leaders. This Republic was recognized by Germany and the Ottoman State. However, this state was attacked first by the white army and then by the Bolshevik army and was occupied.

Although the 1919-1920 struggle was continued under the leadership of Seyh Uzun Haci, in 1921 the North Caucasus was completely occupied by the Bolsheviks. But guerrilla movements did not stop, especially in Chechnya. Also, Communism-motivated repressions were added to Russian expansionism in the Caucasus.

1922 The Communists declared the region "Chechen province".

1924-25 The Caucasus Police Department started a prison frenzy.

While the 1929 Caucasus War Command started to seize the land of the people in the North Caucasus, the Chechens who opposed it started a new rebellion movement under the leadership of Sit Islambulov.

The Red Army of 1930 made an agreement with the mujahids led by Sit Islambulov. With this agreement, the Soviets gave a guarantee that they would respect the rights of Chechen Nations.

The 1931 KGB broke the agreement and had Sit Islambulov and his friends run. Sit Islambulov was replaced by his brother Hasan Islambulov. War with the Red Army continued until 1935.

1932 The people in the Nogayyurt region revolted. On the other hand, the NKVD, which later turned into the KGB, tortured the people here by imprisoning. Then a false uprising was carried out under the leadership of the red partisan Ibrahim Gelderan to denigrate the nation elsewhere. Thus, the KGB managed to target the people to the Red Army bullets.

1936 Moscow named the Chechen-Ingus province the Chechen Ingus Soviet Socialist Autonomous Republic. People who objected to the words "Soviet Socialist" were imprisoned in 1937. Within a year, thousands of people were arrested and none of them could return home.

1940 The rebellion against the Russians who started the deportation policy under the leadership of Hasan Islambulov played a unifying role in the Caucasus. Hasan Islambulov seized the city of Satoy and the provisional government of the Galanoj Ingus people was established. All those attacks by the Russians could not destroy Islambulov supporters.

1942 The re-establishment of the Chechen State was declared in Chechnya. At the head of the state was Hasan Israilov.

23 February 1944 As a result of a large-scale military operation, all Chechen people, together with Kirim, Karachay, Balkar and Ahiska Turks, were deported by Stalin to the steppes of Siberia and Turkistan. Individual guerrilla groups also operated in Chechnya until 1976.

1944 During this total exile, thousands of Chechens were targeted by famine, epidemic disease and Russian courts.

1957 Soviet leader Nikita Kuruschev granted some rights to the exiled Chechens and Ingus to regain their former status. The exiles began to return to their homeland in the Chechen Ingus Republic. Meanwhile, Moscow continued to deploy the Russian Cossacks in the Chechen Ingus lands and change the population structure.

1976 The mountains of Chechnya have witnessed armed struggles until this date.

Süslov, the deputy of Brezhnev, the first man of the 1982 Communist Party of the Soviet Union, continued his policy of assimilation, saying, "Other nations joined the Soviet Union on their own will."

1988 Chechen Ingus People's Front was established. Hodja Ahmet Bisultanov was elected leader. The front organized protests against the chemical factory being built in Gudermes as the first action. Meanwhile, political organizations were also established. These organizations gained political party identity in 1990.

The Chechen People's Congress was held on 23-25 October 1990 in Grozny. At the congress, the declaration on the independence of the Chechen people and the restoration of the state was adopted.

October 27, 1990 The pro-Moscow administration of the Chechen-Ingus Republic approved the Declaration published by the Chechen People's Congress; He also published a declaration on the state independence of the Chechen-Ingus Republic. It was declared that the so-called autonomy was abolished and the independent Chechen-Ingus Republic was established, except for the USSR and RF. The Chechen people did not participate in any referendum or elections for president held by the USSR and RF.

In the decision taken at the 2nd Meeting of the Chechen People's Congress on 8 July 1991, it was proposed to the Soviet government to make a wide-ranging Alliance Agreement with Chechnya. Due to the change in the status of autonomy of Chechnya and in line with the decision of the Chechen People's Congress, the pro-Moscow administration of the Chechen-Ingus Republic was declared to have lost its liability.

After the coup attempt in Moscow on 19 August 1991, the Chechen People's Congress organized armed resistance against the putschists.

September 1, 1991 The 3rd meeting of the Chechen People's Congress was held with the participation of Soviet parliamentary representatives from all levels of Chechnya, where the pro-Moscow Chechen-Ingusetya Supreme Soviet was defeated, as well as the state independence lost as a result of centuries of war with Russia and the legal status of the state was declared revitalized.

September 6, 1991 The Supreme Soviet of the former pro-Moscow administration was dropped. The buildings of the Supreme Soviet, the KGB and the Ministry of Internal Affairs came under the control of the Chechen People's Congress.

September 15, 1991 The former Chechen-Ingusetya Supreme Soviet decided to dissolve itself. The Chechen People's Congress, with the participation of the Soviet parliamentary representatives of all levels of Chechnya, established the Provisional Supreme Council. This Council is tasked with holding the Presidential and Parliamentary elections of the independent state of Chechnya. The legal documents and legal procedures required to hold legitimate elections were arranged by the Congress and the Interim Supreme Council.

October 1991 The Ingus people held their congress in Ingusetya and declared the establishment of their republic, with its headquarters in the city of Nazran.

October 27, 1991 Elections for the independent Chechen state parliament and president were held under the supervision of observers from 23 states and international organizations around the world. Regarding the election results, the minutes drawn up by international observers on the liability of the elections were accepted. Head of the Chechen People's Congress, strategic air force general Cahar Dudayev,

President was elected. At the same time, the parliament consisting of 41 deputies was also elected.

November 1, 1991 Chechen Head of State C. Dudayev first signed the decree "Regarding the Revival of the State Independence of the Chechen Republic". The President of the Russian Federation, Boris Yeltsin, declared an extraordinary situation and sent troops to Grozny, the capital of Chechnya. These soldiers were sent to the Head of State Dudayev at the Grozny airport.

After being blocked by the troops, the Russian Parliament lifted the extraordinary situation and the Russian soldiers returned 3 days later.

March 12, 1992 ÇIC parliament adopted the constitution of the independent Chechen state; where the report on the state independence of the Chechen Republic was based on constitutional norms.

In line with an agreement signed with the Chechen government in April 1992; Russian armies were completely expelled from Chechnya territory. Since then, not a single Russian soldier has remained in Chechnya territory.

June 1992 Chechen-Ingus Republic separated into "Chechnya" and "Ingusistan." While Ingusistan decided to remain within the Russian Federation, Chechnya's decision of independence was rejected by Russia.

1994 Moscow launched a propaganda war, saying "Chechnya criminals have become headquarters". Meanwhile he made a call to the people to overthrow Cahar Dudayev.

August 2, 1994 The Provisional Council, supported by Russia, started the overthrow of Cevher Dudayev.

November 25, 1994 Moscow-backed rebels attacked Grozny with tanks and heavy weapons. But one day later they had to retreat.

November 29, 1994 Boris Yeltsin called on Dudayev and the opposition to lay down their weapons within 48 hours. He explained that otherwise he would declare an extraordinary situation. Russian planes bombed Grozny.

November 30, 1994 A new air attack was carried out by Russian aircraft. After the attack involving at least 10 planes, Cahar Dudayev asked women and children to leave Grozny. Russia has begun to amass troops on the Chechen border.

1 December 1994 Yeltsin, who did not take any action despite the expiry of his period, declared that he would try every way to get back the Russian prisoners in the hands of the Chechens.

December 6, 1994 After the independence of Chechnya, a high-level meeting was held with Russia for the first time. In their meeting, Russian Defense Ministers Pavel Grachev and Cahar Dudayev agreed that force should not be used to end the crisis.

December 7, 1994 The Russian Security Council requested that all constitutional measures be implemented to disarm the parties.

December 8, 1994 Boris Yeltsin requested the implementation of constitutional measures.

December 10, 1994 Russia announced that it was closing the border with Chechen airspace. Grozny was bombed again. One of Dudayev's aides said that if Russia invaded Chechnya, Russian soldiers would leave in a coffin.

December 11, 1994 Russian soldiers entered Chechnya from three branches. Yeltsin asked the Chechens to lay down their weapons by allowing time until December 15th.

December 12, 1994 Russian aircraft bombed targets near Grozny. Heavy clashes took place in villages outside of Grozny.

December 14, 1994 Cahar Dudayev warned Russia and declared that if they take one more step, they would start guerrilla warfare. Hope for peace ended with the Chechens' rejection of Russia's demands.

December 15, 1994 Boris Yeltsin extended the time given by Dudayev supporters to drop their weapons by 48 hours. Dudayev announced that if the Russian soldiers withdraw, he would sit on the table.

A Russian general, who was sent to Chechnya on December 16, 1994, stated that Yeltsin's movement was unconstitutional and declared that "he would not go one step further". In its statement, the Russian Security Council delayed the deadline until midnight on Saturday night.

December 17, 1994 Russian Foreign Minister Andrei Kozirev asked the foreigners to leave the country and once again invited Dudayev to the meeting table.

December 18, 1994 Russian planes started bombing Grozny from midnight. But land operations were not initiated. Dudayev supporters in Grozny remained silent and waited for Russia to take a second step.

December 19, 1994 Russian forces specifically bombed civilian settlements, killing 16 people. Air strikes on Grozny continued again. Extensive collisions were reported outside of Grozny. Journalists in the area reported that the village of Petropavlovskaya was taken over by the Russians. To the Presidential Palace

It was stated that the bullets that the palace did not get hit in the attacks fell on the empty land.

January 1995 Russian tanks started moving towards the center of Grozny.

February 1995 Mujahideen began to leave the capital Grozny.

April 1995 European Security and Cooperation Conference AGIK decided to establish a Chechnya commission. Dudayev threatened to attack inside Russia. Argun began to capture Gudermes and Sali.

May 1995 Russian troops marched towards the Caucasus mountain. In the first round of talks held under the auspices of AGIK, no results were obtained.

June 1995 announced that Russian Soldiers captured the headquarters of the Mujahideen in the southeast. They also took Ursalr, Satoy, and Nazhoyyurt.

On June 14, 1995, a group of mujahids led by Samil Basayev, who raided the town of Budonnovski in Stavropol, 70 kilometers from Chechnya, took hundreds of Russians hostage in a hospital.

June 15, 1995 Russia alerted its forces in the North Caucasus. Yeltsin called on Russian civilians to calm down.

June 16, 1995 Russian troops guard key buildings in Moscow in case of Chechen attack. Factions in the Russian parliament demanded the resignation of the government. A call was made to return to Yeltsin, who went to Canada for the Sevens meeting.

17 June 1995 Russian soldiers raided the hospital. The operation was not successful. However, Basayev released 220 women, children and patients. Yeltsin; explained that the raid was carried out after he left Moscow. Prime Minister Chernomirdin proposed a ceasefire in Chechnya in exchange for the release of the hostages.

June 18, 1995 Russian Prime Minister Chernomirdin had a phone call with the commander of the mujahideen, Samil Basayev. The mujahids released 126 more hostages. Basayev wanted a bus to take his men and some of the hostages to Chechnya. The Russian commander in Chechnya ordered the cessation of all military operations.

19 June 1995 The new round of the Peace talks started in Grozny. The Mujahideen released another 764 hostages and left Budonnovsky in a convoy of buses with some journalists, parliamentarians and a large number of Russians against a Russian trap.

30 July 1995 A military agreement was signed between the delegations. According to the agreement; The Russians would withdraw their troops from Chechnya, and the Chechens would surrender their non-defensive weapons. Chechen delegation was chaired by Chechnya Bassist Osmati Imayev.

August 1995 It has been reported that there are indications that chemical weapons may have been used in Chechnya.

August 16, 1995 After the peace talks in Grozny, the capital of the Chechen Republic, were interrupted and the tension between the parties escalated dangerously, a group of Chechen resistance fighters handed over their weapons.

August 25, 1995 The forces affiliated with Chechen leader Cahar Dudayev reported that they seized power in Gudermes, the second largest city of the republic.

28 August 1995 The famous Chechen fighter Samil Basayev, who raided the Russian city of Budonnovsk and initiated the negotiation process that led to the Russian-Chechen delegations reaching a military agreement on July 30, said that they would not surrender their weapons.

September 5, 1995 In Chechnya, supporters of Cahar Dudayev celebrated the anniversary of the declaration of independence declared on September 6, 1991, but not recognized, in various settlements of the republic.

September 16, 1995 It was reported that three people died and six were injured as a result of the bombardment of Russian planes in the town of Alkhoi-mohk in Chechnya.

October 4, 1995 Advisor to the President of Chechnya Dudayev, Ramazan Kaytmarov, declared that the main aim of Russia in Chechnya is to acquire oil fields, use the pipeline and establish a military base.

December 20, 1995 Russian soldiers invaded the city of Gudermes in Chechnya, killing hundreds of civilians and seizing the city. The insurgents, who controlled 70 percent of the country, inflicted heavy losses on the Russians.

January 9, 1996 Salman Rudayev, leader of the "Lonely Wolf" group, raided Kizilyar and captured hundreds of people.

January 17, 1996 Salman Raduyev and his friends managed to break through the Russian encirclement in the village of Pervomaiskoye, where they were trapped while escaping from Kizilya.

February 5, 1996 In Grozny, the capital of Chechnya, pro-independence Chechens started demonstrations demanding the separation of Russian forces.

8 February 1996 Thousands of people attended the demonstrations in Grozny.

April 21, 1996 Chechnya President Cahar Dudayev was martyred.

August 31, 1996 The Hasavyurt Agreements were signed on the end of the war, the removal of Russian soldiers from Chechnya, as well as the preparation of an inter-state agreement in line with international principles.

January 27, 1997 In accordance with the constitution of the independent state, under the supervision of international organizations, independent journalists and observers from 60 countries of the world, the Presidential elections of the ÇIC were held. Aslan Maskhadov became President.

12 May 1997 Between RF and ÇIC, in terms of development of Hasavyurt Contracts; "Agreement on principles of peace and mutual relations between RF and ÇIC" was signed. The agreement includes the presidents of the two states; It was signed by Boris Yeltsin (RF) and Aslan Maskhadov (ÇIC), and was signed by Russia and Chechnya Republic of Ichkeria.

in accordance with the law and principles and principles) gained the status of inter-state inter-state.

12 May 1998 "Agreement between the RF and the EIC on the principles of peace and mutual relations" was ratified by the ÇIC parliament. A number of other agreements were also signed with the Russian Federation. Among them, such as cooperation in the customs area (which legally secures the independent state status of the Chechnya Republic of Ichkeria)

There is also an agreement. Today, the Russian Federation is imposing a political, economic and military blockade against the CIC, in violation of international law principles; In addition, the fulfillment of the obligations it had undertaken with regard to the compensation for the material damage inflicted on the Chechen state during the war is also postponed on every occasion.

13 May 1998 The Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the ÇIC conveyed the official note to the RF Ministry of Foreign Affairs, proposing the establishment of official diplomatic relations between the Russian Federation and the Chechen Republic of Ichkeria.

September 1999 250 people died in mysterious bombings in various parts of Russia and in Dagistan.

Geography of Chechnya

Located in the eastern part of the North Caucasus, partly in Eastern Europe, Chechnya is surrounded almost on all sides by the Russian Federal territory. It borders on North Ossetia and Ingushetia to the west, Stavropol Krai to the north, Dagestan to the east and Georgia to the south. Its capital is Grozny.

Stavropol Krai, affiliated to the Russian Federation, is located in the northwest, Dagestan and Georgia in the east and south, Ingushia and North Ossetia in the west. The south of Chechnya is completely mountainous. These mountains extend from Nazrani in the west to Gerzel-dola in the east. The mountain ranges extending from Stolovaya Mountain at the westernmost end to İtumgalla take the name of Taşlır Mountains (Thulgandagghaş). North of the stony mountain range there are mountains called the Sunzha (Sunja) mountain ranges. It has the Terek mountain range to the north. Large streams flow vertically through the Sunzha mountain range, connected to the Sunzha branch of the Terek River. More to be mentioned than the mountains are those that form the southern border of Chechnya. The great mountains that stretch along the border from west to east can be regarded as the peaks of the Caucasus mountain range:

Chechnya Administrative Regions

Chechen Republic is divided into 15 regions and 3 important cities for the republic.

The actual regions of Chechnya are not found, but most people [ who? ] He states that different dialects of the Chechen language define different regions. The main dialects are: Grozny, also known as the Dzhokhar dialect, is the dialect of the people who live in Grozny and some surrounding towns. Naskhish is a dialect spoken in northeastern Chechnya.

There are other dialects that are believed to describe the districts, but since these regions are very isolated, much research has not been done in these areas.


  • Oil constitutes the basis of the economy of the Chechen Republic. Although oil is found almost everywhere, extraction and processing facilities are mostly concentrated between Grozny and Gudermes and around Malgobek. The largest refineries are located in Grozny and the products obtained are also sold to other countries. Oil pipelines extend to Makhachkala on the Caspian Sea coast, Tuapse on the Black Sea coast, and also to the Donets coal basin. Factories that manufacture the necessary machinery for the petroleum and petrochemical industry are also located around Grozny. Among other industries in the country, timber and parquet manufacturing, musical instrument making and food industry are important. After oil, the main underground wealth is coal and natural gas.

  • Agricultural lands are mostly concentrated in the Terek basin. Among the agricultural varieties, fruit growing, viticulture and tobacco cultivation are given importance; livestock is also on the way of development.

  • The great burden of transportation in the country is borne by the railways connecting Astarhan and Baku on the Caspian Sea coast, Tuapse on the Black Sea coast and Rostov on the coast of the Azov Sea, going beyond the borders of the republic. Grozny also has road connections with other important cities and neighboring countries.

    The Chechen Republic, which has unique natural beauties and many historical ruins, is rich in tourism potential; However, despite the abundance of possibilities, the tourism sector is not developed.

  • History. It is known that people have lived in the Chechen land since the Paleolithic period, especially in the vicinity of Lake Kezenoy and in the valley of the Halhulau river. III before AD in various parts of the country. There are grave monuments belonging to the millennium BC, and it is learned from archaeological data that in this period agricultural communities lived here and these people knew how to make pottery and metalwork. In Armenian, Georgian and Greek-Roman sources, the names of Chechen tribes such as Gargar, Durdzuk, Isadnk (Sod), Kist with the general names of Nakhchy were mentioned before IV-III. from the centuries. Chechens who joined the Alan Tribe Union in the 1st century AD, IV. After the Hun invasion in the century, they spread to the Central and Northeast Caucasus and played an active role in the political life of the whole Caucasus.

  • During the Arab-Caspian wars, the Umayyad governor general of Armenia Marwan b. With the raids of Muhammad (later Caliph Marwan II) to Durdzukistan (Chechnya) in 736-738, the Islamic domination in the region started to be settled and from this period the peoples of Dagestan and Chechnya began to become Islam. XIII. In the century, Chechnya was attacked by Mongols. Although the Chechens won the war in the Hankal valley, they had to retreat to the mountains in front of Mengü Han between 1238 and 1240, and all the land of the country, except for the mountains, joined the territory of the Cuci nation. In 1395, with Timur's arrival in the Sunja river basin, the second Mongol invasion began; however, during his three to four years of rule, Timur could not capture the mountainous areas either. The Chechens managed to maintain their independence in the mountains they retreated during the period when the Mongols controlled the steppe regions of the North Caucasus for a total of two centuries, and these long years of defense led to the emergence of a different castle architecture. The reputation of Chechen-Ingush architects spread throughout the Caucasus; Today, the ruins of enormous fortresses are found in the mountainous parts of the Chechen country.

  • XVI. In the first half of the century, Russians began to spread systematically towards the North Caucasus and the Terek river tribes witnessed the settlement of Russian Cossacks. Terki Fortress was built on the bank of this river in 1567, and after 1718 other castles were built, thus strengthening the Russian front in the Caucasus. As a matter of fact, during the Iran-Russian wars in 1722, Peter I remained in the Chechen lands, which they accepted as safe for them. However, after a while, the Chechens, who took up arms, defeated the Russian troops under the command of Lieutenant Colonel Koh on July 7, 1732. From this period onwards, in Russian sources, the name of the Nakhchiy people began to be mentioned as Chechen and their country as Chechnya. The Chechens, who also defeated the forces of the Crimean khan in 1735, intensified their wars against the Russian armies on the one hand and the Kabardin, Kumuk and other tribes who cooperated with them in this century and were especially successful under the leadership of Beybulat Taymiyev and later Sheikh Mansur (Uşurma). they fought a fight. During this period, Chechnya was the main center of those who resisted the Russian invasion and oppression in the Caucasus. In 1810 the Ingush voluntarily converted to Russian subjugation and agreed to stand by them during the war with the treaty they signed. Thus, the Ingushs, who had the same roots as the Chechens, broke away from them and were declared as a separate people by the Russians.

  • The Chechens, who retreated to the mountains with Russian pressure, were initiated by Imam Gazi-Muhammed (d.1832) in Dagestan after their fertile land was distributed to the Cossacks, and their successors Hamza (Gavzat) Bey (d.1834) and Şeyh Şamil (d.1871) they joined the famous resistance they were continuing. Chechens were especially his most loyal allies in the relentless struggle of Sheikh Shamil for twenty-five years until his surrender in 1859, which is not seen in history. The region's completely enters the Russian control in the 1860s began to migrate toward the North from the Caucasus to Turkey. The Russian government, took Chechnya and Dagestan together with immigrant Jews to Turkey; however, the Jews later crossed into Syria and Palestine. In the same years, no results were obtained from the rebellions under the command of leaders such as Baysungur, Uma Duyev, Atabi Atayev and Dade Zalmayev, and the last great rebellion that started in 1877 and was suppressed with the execution of leader Alibey-Haji in Grozny a year later.

  • During the Bolshevik Revolution in Russia, new riots broke out in the Chechen country. Established in 1917, the Caucasus State (Dagestan), the Mountainous Republic of the North Caucasus Peoples, including the Chechens under Sheikh Uzun-Haji, declared its departure from Russia on May 11, 1918. A year later, General Denikin conquered the lands of Dagestan, where he established regional military administrations and restored the institutions of the tsarist period. However, the Dagestanians, who immediately started a great uprising, destroyed all of Denikin's garrisons with the support of the Bolsheviks towards the autumn of 1919 and re-established the independent Republic of Dagestan. However, the Bolsheviks, who completely dominated the situation in Russia, did not delay in occupying the Dagestan lands (1921) and after a while they dissolved the republic (7 July 1924), within the framework of the policy of separating the peoples living in these regions by dividing the regions with ethnic differences into autonomous administrations. They established the autonomous administrations of Dagestan Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic and Chechnya, Ingushetia and Assistants (Ossetia). In 1936, Chechnya and Ingushstan were merged under the name of the Chechen-Ingush Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic (Checheno-Ingushskaya ASSR) of the Russian Federation. Like many people living in the Soviet Union in 1937-1939, Chechens faced the danger of extinction as a result of Stalin's totalitarian rule. II. The Moscow government, which planned to destroy 500,000 people en masse after the Tehran meeting in 1943 during World War II, gave up this in 1944 and exiled Chechens to Central Asia and Kazakhstan. The main reason for this movement, from Turkey, Kars and Ardahan, attempting to take the Caucasus, Stalin was unwilling to encounter any strength. With the forced migration of 1944, the Chechen-Ingush Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic was dissolved and part of its land was given to North Ossetia and part to Dagestan; Thus, the ground was prepared for ethnic conflicts among the people who stayed behind. Thirteen years later, on January 9, 1957, the former autonomous administration was re-established under the name of the Chechen-Ingush Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic. In 1989, when the states affiliated to the Soviet Union began to gain their rule, the Chechens and Ingushs, who were directly in the Russian Federation, also started their activities. On October 27, 1991, the parliamentary and presidential elections were held in Chechnya and Cahar Dudayev, leader of the Executive Board of the National Congress of the Chechen People, received 85% of the votes. Then, on November 1, 1991, the independence of the Chechen Republic from Russia was declared. However, the Moscow government, which did not accept this, launched a state of emergency on 7 November and sent army troops to the country after the events that took place on November 8-9; but later he had to withdraw these troops. The independence decision of the Chechen Republic has not yet been recognized by any country in the international arena. On the other hand, Ingushs chose to stay in the Russian Federation under the name of Ingush Republic at the end of the referendum they held on 30 November 1991.

  • Culture and Literature. The most valuable resource about the history, language and traditions of the Chechen people is Chechen folklore. The Nart epic, which is thought to have occurred in the years before the death, is the main representative of oral folk literature. The famous writer Tolstoy and researchers such as PK Uslar and LP Semenov highly valued Chechen folklore, which, despite its originality, has mingled with world motifs. Heroic songs have an important place in folk literature, the first examples of which were written down in the Arabic alphabet. In the North Caucasus, including Chechnya and Dagestan, the Arabic language was widely widespread, especially during the reign of Sheikh Shamil. As well as Arabic and Chechen poems were written, books on religious and non-religious subjects written in this language were also published in Arabic alphabet. The "tyaptar" (notebook), dealing with important events, was a common type of literature.

  • The development of Chechen literature in the Soviet administration was within the framework of the dogmatic views of communism, praising the Communist Party and criticizing religion, traditions and customs became the main theme of Chechen "state literature". In this literature, it is seen that class struggles take the place of human, human values. In 1924, the Arabic alphabet was banned and replaced by the Latin alphabet, and in 1938, by replacing the Cyrillic alphabet, books were published in Chechen and Russian languages. However, despite the ban, the books written in Arabic alphabet were distributed under hand for a long time. Many poets and writers tragically died during the repression regime of 1937-1939; others were locked up in prisons or deported to Siberia. In addition, since 1944, when the Chechen-Ingush Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic was dissolved and its people deported to Kazakhstan, efforts were made to completely eradicate Chechen literature. Chechen books written in Arabic and Arabic script were burned in the square in the center of Grozny in 1944. Today, some of the works of this literature can only be found in private collections and at the Oriental institutes in Moscow and Petersburg. Some works of the great Chechen writer and thinker, Gonzales-Salih Gadayev (d. 1972), were published only in the late 1980s.

  • Today, one university, two colleges, various technical and social research institutes and many libraries operate in the country, mostly in Grozny.

Kyrgyzstan-Turkey Relations

After Kyrgyzstan declared its independence, economic and social relations between the two countries started with a rapid acceleration. After the "Protocol on Economic Relations" signed in 1991 and the "Agreement on the Mutual Promotion and Protection of Investments" in 1992, more than 100 bilateral agreements and protocols have come into force until today.

Today, the number of Turkish businesses in the Republic of Kyrgyzstan is over 600. Turkish organizations in the country; It works in a wide variety of fields such as the production of food products such as beverages, biscuits, confectionery, cleaning materials, construction materials such as PVC-plastic pipes, shopping mall management and construction.

As of 2006, our mutual trade volume has reached 160 million USD. Turkey at the beginning of the precious stone and metal products exported to Kyrgyzstan, electrical machinery, carpets and sugary products, automotive supplies come. Turkey is among the products which were imported to Kyrgyzstan in the first row of vegetables, fruits, leather and silk are located. Turkey, Kazakhstan's foreign trade in Russia, Kazakhstan, China, Uzbekistan and Ukraine after the American ranks the 7th.

Education has an important place in Kyrgyzstan-Turkey relations. Within the scope of the "Great Student Project" started in 1992, education scholarships have been given to 4400 Kyrgyz students as of 2007. In addition, two Turkish-Kyrgyz High Schools and two Turkish-Kyrgyz Universities operate in Kyrgyzstan. International Atatürk-Alatoo University was opened in 1996 and Manas Kyrgyz-Turkish University was opened in 1997. Turkish students can enter these universities with the scores they get as a result of the ÖSYM exam, just like other Turkish universities.

Kyrgyzstan has an Embassy in Ankara and a Consulate General in Istanbul. It is also represented by the Honorary Consulate in Adana. If Turkey's Embassy in Bishkek is located in Kyrgyzstan.

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