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Important prehistoric sites are ancient stone age cave paintings in the North Blue Cave in Hovd Province and the White Cave in Bayanhongor Province. Polished stone age agricultural settlements were found in Dornod Province.

Expansion of the Mongol Empire between 1206-1294

Until the beginning of the 12th century in the Mongolian region, states such as Hiung-nu, Apar (Avar, Cücen), Göktürk, Uygur and Karahitay were dominant. With the tribes that Genghis Khan united and organized, the first Mongolian State was established in Mongolia in 1206. Genghis Khan died in 1227.

In the seventeenth century, Tsarist Russia began attempts to take control of the region. In the eighteenth century, the struggle of the Russian and pro-Chinese people began in Mongolia. The fact that Mongolian princesses lived like the Chinese led to the initiation of nationalism in Mongolia. Christianization began in Mongolia with the activities of Catholic missionaries. Missionaries supported Mongolia's independence in the hope of gaining a fulcrum in the Far East. The idea of independence spread. With the collapse of the Manchu Dynasty in China in 1912, the Mongolian princes declared the independence of Mongolia with the help of the Russians. The Mongols, who fought with the Chinese, introduced their independence to China in 1915.

In the Sino-Japanese War, the communist movement was launched in Mongolia with underground activity. With Japan's entry into North China, Mongolia was invaded in 1935-1937, and local mukhtar regions were established. In 1945, II. With the end of World War II, pro-independence organizations in the country continued their activities in parallel with communism. With the weakening of the organizations that struggled against communism, Inner Mongolia was made mukhtar under China's rule. II. After World War II, the Mongolian People's Republic was established in Outer Mongolia on the advice of the USA and Britain. Declaring its independence with a referendum on 20 October 1945, Mongolia was first recognized by the Nationalist China. In 1946, an alliance was signed between the Mongolian People's Republic and the Soviet Union. It was admitted to the United Nations in 1961. The collapse of communist rule in the Soviet Union and Eastern Europe also affected Mongolia, which was ruled by communism. With the transition to a multi-party system in 1990; economic, social and political reforms were made. July 1990 held the first multi-party elections. Russian troops in Mongolia were withdrawn as a result of the agreement.


Haltmaagiyn Battulga (born March 3, 1963, Ulan Bator), Mongolian politician. Battulga has been in Mongolia, on the Asian continent, since 6 July 2017.

He served as the Great Hural State Member from 2004 to 2016 and as the Minister of Highways, Transport, Construction and Urban Development from 2008 to 2012. He participated in the presidential elections of 2017 as the candidate of the Democratic Party and was elected the country's new president with 50.6%.

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Mongolia is a landlocked country located in East and Central Asia. The territory of the country corresponds to the historical region of Outer Mongolia. Russia in the north; south, east and west are Inner Mongolia and Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region, which are connected to China.




Situated between two superpowers such as Russia and China, Mongolia is under the influence of these two states politically, economically and culturally. Trying to keep good relations with these two countries, Mongolia, the United States opened up to foreign policies carried out in recent years, India, Turkey, Japan, South Korea and the European Union "Third Neighbor" has been declared.

Mongolia was ruled by a single communist party from 1921, when independence was gained, to 1990. Parallel to the developments in the Soviet Union towards the end of the Cold War, Mongolia also transitioned to a multi-party constitutional system. The head of state is determined by elections held every four years. Khaltmaagiin Battulga, who won the elections held in June and July 2017 with 55% of the vote in the second round, is currently the head of state. The next elections are planned for 2021.

The legislature is a 75-seat assembly and its members are elected every four years. Although the Mongolian People's Party won 65 seats in the last elections held in April 2016, as a result of the developments within the party following the presidential elections in 2017, the government was overthrown without a vote of confidence and a new government was established in September 2017.

In Mongolia, which is administratively divided into 21 regions, these regions are called "aymag", which comes from the Turkish "to separate" root. Aymags are also divided into smaller regions called "sum". There are a total of 315 sum in the country.

A Mongolian Throat Tune


Mongolia History

The historical information about the Mongols goes back to the 7th century. The data revealed in archaeological excavations is that the Mongols were located in the east of the Tula River and the river was the border between the Turks and the Mongols. From the 6th century onwards, the Mongols, who were under the rule of Göktürk and then the Uighurs, 10-12. Although they succeeded in establishing states such as Curcen, Kitan and Karahitay between the centuries, their emergence as a state in the history scene and coming to an effective position in world history was realized with Genghis Khan in the 13th century. Timuçin, who succeeded in bringing all the Mongol tribes together in 1206, received the title of Genghis Khan and since then he succeeded in making his state one of the states that reached the widest borders in the world history. After Genghis Khan's death in 1241, the borders of the Mongolian state continued to expand, and in the time of his successor, Ogeday, it became an empire stretching from China and Korea in the east to the interior of Eastern Europe in the west. When the state reached its widest borders, it managed to become the largest contiguous limited state in world history in an area of 34 million square kilometers. With the death of Kublai Khan in 1294, the state was divided into four parts, thus Altınorda, Ilkhanians, Chagatay and Kubilay Khanate emerged. These states, which have undergone significant changes in religious, cultural and ethnic areas due to the influence of the geographies they have established contact with, have withdrawn from the stage of history since the middle of the 14th century.

In the late 17th century, Mongolia, which became a province of China with the Dolon Nor Agreement signed in 1691, continued in this way for more than two centuries, until the end of the Manchu Qing dynasty in 1911. Although the Mongols declared independence after the fall of the Manchu Qing, they could only gain autonomy on December 29, 1911. Mongolia, which turned into a rivalry between Russia and China after the First World War, came under the domination of China in 1919 again. In February 1921, the White Russians took control of Mongolia, but with the support of the Soviet Union and the entry of the Red Army into Mongolia in June 1921, Mongolia entered the process of independence. The People's Republic of Mongolia was declared on November 26, 1924, but the country remained under Chinese rule with a special status until 1945.

In the referendum held after the Second World War, the view of full independence was dominant, and on January 5, 1946, China recognized the full independence of Mongolia. In the first years, the declaration of independence was recognized by a limited number of states and mostly by Eastern Bloc countries, and the number of states that officially recognized Mongolia after becoming a member of the United Nations in 1961 increased rapidly. On the other hand, the USA recognized Mongolia only in 1987, and relations with China, which broke off with full independence in 1946, only started again on this date.

In Mongolia, which was under the political rule of the Soviet Union since the People's Republic declared in 1924, Horlogiyn Çoybalsan, who was in charge of the state administration from the early 1930s until his death in 1952, implemented Stalinist policies. Strict policies were followed against Buddhism, which was widespread in the country, and the rebellions against the administration were suppressed in a bloody way. After the death of Çoybalsan, Yumjaagiin Tsedenbal, who led the state administration during the Cold War, continued the communist practices of the Soviet Bloc.

With the opposition movements that emerged in the country since 1989, the end of the Cold War and the withdrawal of the Soviet Union, the Communist Party politburo members resigned in March 1990 and the constitutional amendment was made for the multi-party system in the country. The first multi-party elections were held in Mongolia in 1992, and the name of the state was changed to the "Republic of Mongolia" after the elections. The country has begun to open up to the outside world since this date and has succeeded in continuing the democratic processes.

Mongolia Economic Situation

During the Cold War, Mongolia, which sustained its economy with Soviet aid, which corresponds to one third of the national income, has transitioned to a free market economy since the 1990s. The stable picture in the first years following the transition has evolved into a rapid growth since the 2000s. Mongolia, which has achieved an average growth rate of over 6% in the last decade, is under the influence of Russia and China to a large extent in the economic field as well as in the political field. Efforts to improve transportation and infrastructure facilities in recent years are an indication of the target of opening up to new markets in the economy. However, in the country where approximately one third of the population still lives below the poverty line, the average annual income per capita is around 4,000 dollars.

Mongolia has many precious metal reserves such as copper, gold, coal, tungsten, tin, molybdenum and uranium. During the Cold War, the industrial sector, which developed with Soviet aid, makes a significant contribution to the country's economy. The most important industry branch in the country is mining. Other major fields; construction, food, animal product processing (leather, cashmere, etc.) and textiles. The industrial sector meets approximately 40% of national income and more than half of exports.

In the country where agricultural opportunities are limited, the main source of income is animal husbandry. Animal husbandry is a traditional activity that is widely practiced in almost every part of the country. There is sheep, goat, cattle, camel and horse breeding in the country where small and bovine livestock is carried out. Although cereals such as barley and wheat are at the forefront in agricultural activities, product productivity is not sufficient to meet the needs of the country.

Having a deficit in foreign trade until 2013, Mongolia has become a country with foreign trade surplus by increasing its exports and decreasing its imports. The foreign trade volume of Mongolia, which almost doubled its exports in the last five years, was realized as 12.5 billion dollars in 2018, of which 7.4 billion dollars in exports and 5.1 billion dollars in imports. Mongolia is heavily dependent on China for foreign trade. So much so that China's share in exports is over 80% and its share in imports is over 30%. Mongolia continues its efforts to open up to new markets with its economic policies in recent years.

Mongolia Turkey Relations

Turkish-Mongolian relations, whose roots go back a thousand years, mean a lot for both countries. In this respect, it is extremely important that the Orkhon Inscriptions, the oldest known written sources of Turkish history, are located in Mongolia. With the new state structures, the first relations between the two countries were established in 1969, and the 50th anniversary of bilateral relations is celebrated in 2019. In the 1990s Turkey-Mongolia relations have gained momentum in 1996, Turkey, Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia was opened a year later the Embassy of the service. There have been many visits between the two countries at the level of presidency, national assembly presidency and ministries. Former President of Mongolia Natsagiin Bagabandi visited our country in 2004, R. Tayyip Erdoğan in 2013 and Binali Yıldırım in 2018 were in Mongolia as prime ministers. Two border with Mongolia, only a few countries in the world, "third neighbor" is considered to be one of these countries and Turkey. Relations between the two countries are expected to continue to get stronger in the upcoming period.

Trade relations between Turkey and Mongolia under development. The main reason why the convergence in political relations does not affect commercial relations at the expected level is the high transportation costs due to geographical distance. This situation is planned to be remedied by commercial airline transportation in the coming years. Usually sail under a foreign trade volume of $ 10 million annually by 2010 between Mongolia and Turkey, in 2011, increased to $ 46 million, but it bumpy from the date of 20-50 million range was followed by a chart. Finally, in 2018 exports from Turkey to Mongolia $ 34 million, it realized a $ 38 million trade imports, totaling about $ 4 million. The main products exported from Turkey to Mongolia; jewelry, electric water heaters, radiators, ready-made food, cleaning products, petroleum oils and medicine. If the products imported from Mongolia to Turkey silver, it is tanned animal skins and textiles.

The Situation of the Muslims in Mongolia

The first contact of Islam with today's Mongolian lands was through the Samanids in the 10th century, and in the following centuries, the Mongols' contact with the Islamic communities, especially Turks and Persians, continued. However, the spread of Islam in Mongolia was made possible by the Kazakhs in the eastern parts of the country in the 19th century. Nevertheless, the elements that accept Islam in the country are generally those of Turkish origin. The communist regime period, which continued in Mongolia after the independence, was very troublesome for the Muslims in the country, freedom of belief and worship was prevented in this process, mosques were burned down and demolished. Islam in Mongolia started to revive in the 1990s, and with the end of the one-party rule, a relative recovery process began for Muslims in the country.

Today, it is estimated that there are around 150,000-200,000 Muslims in Mongolia, which corresponds to around 5% of the total population. Most of the Muslims in the country are Kazakhs and Hoton Turks, and these elements are also concentrated in the east of Mongolia. In addition, there are some Mongols who adopted Islam among the Mongols, although their number is small. Founded in 1990, the Mongolian Muslim Association deals with the religious issues of the Muslims in the country and works to increase political representation. There are currently around 50 mosques open to worship in Mongolia. Mainly from Turkey worship and religious organizations providing education in Pakistan, Saudi Arabia, and is built with assistance from Gulf countries. Ulan Bator, whose construction was organized by TIKA. Osman Mosque and Islamic Cultural Center was opened in 2013 by R. Tayyip Erdoğan. In addition, independent non-governmental organizations focus on humanitarian aid and victim organizations in Olgiy in the east of the country.

Geography of Mongolia

In terms of its physical features, Mongolia is divided into three main regions: the mountain range in the north, the basins between these mountains, the plateau extending to the south, and the desert belt. Altay, Hangay, Sayan and Hentiy mountains constitute the main mountains whose peaks exceed 4000 meters in places. The highest point of the country is the peak of Nayramadlin (4374 m.) In the northwest. These mountains include basins such as the Great Lakes region, Horgo region, Hovsgöl region, and Selenge region. Of these, the fertile Orhon river basin in the southern part of the Selenge basin is important as the cradle of ancient settled cultures. The eastern part of Mongolia is covered with low plateaus. To the south is the semi-arid Gobi desert, which covers about two-thirds of the country's land. The mountain ranges in Mongolia form a water division line between rivers leading to different basins. For example, the great rivers in the north point towards the Arctic Sea (through the Yenisey's branch, Sihşid, Selenge, which flows into Lake Baikal), the Great Ocean (through the Amur's branch Onon) and the Hulun lake in China (through the Kerulen river); small rivers in the south also disappear in closed basins within the country. There are many lakes in the depression plains of the country. A harsh continental climate prevails in Mongolia, characterized by frequent and widespread temperature changes as well as extremely low precipitation. Winters are cold and dry, while summers are hot and rainy. 100mm in the Gobi desert. annual precipitation reaches up to 3000 millimeters in mountainous and high parts; plains and low mountains in the east 200-300 mm. there is rain. Central Mongolia is covered with extensive grasslands. Although there are no trees in the part of the Altai Mountains within the borders of Mongolia, forests with coniferous and deciduous species stand out in the northern mountain range. In the Gobi desert, undersized herbaceous plants are seen in the spring and early summer.

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