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The main color of the country's national flag, adopted in 1991, is green. There is a crescent and five stars on a green background. While the crescent symbolizes the religion of Islam, the five stars represent the five provinces within the borders of Turkmenistan. The carpet motif is vertically located on the left of the flag. The carpet symbolizes the culture and history of Turkmenistan. Three of Turkey's most populous city, Ashgabat, Turkmenabat and Serdar. The most grown and exported product in these cities is cotton. In addition, the most fruit, vegetable and grain products are grown throughout the country. The country consists of five provinces in total. The names of these provinces are Marı, Dasoguz, Balkan, Lebap and Ahal. The population of Turkmenabat is 235 thousand and it is the center of Lebab province. Anav, located in the southeast of Ashgabat, is the central city of Ahal province.


Kurbankulu Berdimuhammedov (Turkmen: Gurbanguly Mälikgulyýewiç Berdimuhamedow, Kiril: Gurbangoli Mәликгулыевич Бердимухамедов, 29 June 1957; Babarap, Göktepe, Ahal) is the Turkmen politician and the second president of Turkmenistan. Berdimuhamedov, whose main profession is a dentist, served under President Saparmurat Niyazov starting in 1997 and as vice president starting in 2001. He was re-elected in the presidential elections with 97% of the votes in February 2012. Re-elected for a third term in February 2017, receiving 97.69% of the vote in the presidential election.

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A Turkish state located in Central Asia. To the north is the Russian Federation, the Ural Mountains and Southern Siberia, to the east, Mongolia and East Turkistan, to the south, Kyrgyzstan, Uzbekistan, Aladag, Tanrı Mountains and Aral Lake, and to the west the Caspian Sea. The east and west borders are 3000 km, and the north and south borders are 1500 km.




Turkey, declared its independence after the collapse of the USSR in 1991 October 27th and the first to recognize that Turkmenistan is the first country to open an Embassy in Ashgabat. Our country supports Turkmenistan's neutral status.

There are special relations between two sister countries and peoples who share a common history, language, religion and culture, based on “One Nation, Two States” based on balanced, mutual respect and cooperation. The cooperation between the two countries follows a positive course in all areas, especially foreign policy, trade and economy, culture and education.

Our President made his first official visit to the Central Asian region to Turkmenistan as the President on 6-7 November 2014. Turkmenistan President Berdimuhamedov, on 3-4 March 2015, to participate in the 6th International Turkmenistan Investment Forum and hold official contacts; He visited our country for an official meeting on 24 April 2015 and finally on 7 August 2015 to participate in the events organized on the occasion of the 100th anniversary of the Çanakkale Land Wars. He participated in the conference "Politics of Neutrality: International Cooperation in the Name of Peace, Security and Development" held in Ashgabat on December 12, 2015, on the occasion of the 20th anniversary of the Neutrality of Turkmenistan.

The two Presidents finally held a private meeting on the margin of the 13th ECO Summit held in Islamabad on 1 March 2017.

Mr. Minister on his first official visit to Central Asia, 28 January 2015 in Turkmenistan Turkmenistan-Turkey-Azerbaijan Foreign Ministers made on the occasion of the Tripartite meeting. Accompanying our President at the international conference organized on the occasion of the 20th anniversary of Turkmenistan's Neutrality, Minister Çavuşoğlu visited Turkmenistan on 12 December 2015.

Minister Meredov visited our country four times in 2015. Minister Meredov recently visited our country on October 29, 2016 on the occasion of the Republic Day and was received by our President on the same day.

A delegation chaired by the Minister of Transport, Maritime Affairs and Communications attended the opening ceremony of Turkmenbashi Port on May 2, 2018 and the Economic Cooperation Organization (ECO) Transport Ministers Meeting held on May 3, 2018.

During his visit to Turkmenistan on 8-9 November 2018, Minister Çavuşoğlu was received by President Berdimuhamedov and had an inter-delegation meeting with his counterpart Meredov.


The Kazakhs' appearance on the stage of history coincides with the 15th century. The Turkish tribes living in the steppe region during the reign of Şeybani Ruler Ebü'l-Hayr migrated to the east under the rule of Canıbek and Kerey, the sons of Barak Khan from the same family, and made the lands of the Çağatay Dynasty. Together with the nomadic Turkish tribes living here, they reached a population of two hundred thousand people. Later, when the Naymanlar, Celayirliler and Duğlatlar joined them, a Kazakh community of one million was formed. Canıbekoğlu Kasım Han was ruled by those who lived around Balkaş, and Kereyoğlu Burunduk Han ruled those who lived in the region up to the Urals. Kasım Han eliminated Burunduk Khan, the son of his uncle, and took all the Kazakhs under his rule and formed an army of three hundred thousand people. After Kasım Han, his son Aknazor Khan (1520-1555), after him his son Shigay Khan (1555-1570) became the ruler of Kazan. During the time of Shigay Khan, all of the steppes came under Kazakh rule. Tevekkel Han (1570-1600), who replaced Shigay Khan, captured Tashkent and made it the capital city. He divided the Kazakh lands into three separate "there". From west to east, the part that includes the Semireciye region to the north of Tien Shan was called BüyükOrda (Uluyüz), the part that includes the middle steppe region to the east of the Aral Lake, OrtaOrda (Ortayüz), and the part between the Aral Lake and the Ural River was called Küçük Orda (Kiçiyüz). His brother Isim Han (1600-1623), who replaced Tevekkel Khan, constantly warned against the Çungarya Kalmyks (Oryats). His brother Cihangir (1623-1655), who succeeded him after him, defeated the Kalmyks in 1626. His son Tekva Han (1655-1678) replaced him after Cihangir Han.

During the reign of Pulta Han (1678-1718), who became the sultan after Tekva Han, Çungarya Kalmyks conquered the regions as far as Turkistan. The unity of the Cossacks broke down. The there started to fight each other. Taking advantage of this situation, the Russians first dominated the Small Horde (1731), then the Middle Horde (1743), and then the Great Horde (1846) under the Hokand Khanate. Thus, all Kazakh lands fell into the hands of Tsarist Russia. Starting from the second half of the 19th century, new housing centers were established in Kazakh lands and Russians were settled. In 1916, when the entire male population between the ages of 19-43 was called into the army, the Kazakhs revolted. But this revolt was bloody suppressed by the Russians.

After the 1917 revolution, the Kazakh government called Alaş Orda was established. The Red Army invaded Kazakhstan in 1920 and a Muhtar Soviet Republic was established in Oranburg. Later, Alma-Ata became the capital city. Nomads were forced to settle down in 1929. A large number of Russians and Ukrainians were settled in Kyrgyzstan. The Cossacks who opposed this were brutally massacred. Although Kazakh children were raised as atheists, far from national and religious culture, they could not succeed. With a new arrangement made in 1936, the Kazakh Autonomous region was transformed into the Kazakh Soviet Socialist Republic. After the Glasnost movements in Russia and with the dissolution of the former Soviet Union in August 1991, the Republic of Kazakhstan declared its independence.


A Turkish state located in Central Asia. To the north is the Russian Federation, the Ural Mountains and Southern Siberia, to the east, Mongolia and East Turkistan, to the south, Kyrgyzstan, Uzbekistan, Aladag, Tanrı Mountains and Aral Lake, and to the west the Caspian Sea. The east and west borders are 3000 km, and the north and south borders are 1500 km.


Turkmenistan is the country in Central Asia. It is surrounded by Kazakhstan in the northwest, Uzbekistan in the north, northeast and east, and Afghanistan and Iran in the south.

Approximately 90 percent of Turkmenistan is covered with deserts. Karakum , one of the largest sand deserts in the world, covers the central part of Turkmenistan and extends towards Kazakhstan. There are also a number of low mountains and hills in Turkmenistan. The Kugitang and Kopet mountains in the south are extensions of the Pamir-Alay Mountain Range. Earthquakes occur frequently in and around the Kopet Mountains, which is a geologically young region.

A harsh continental climate prevails in Turkmenistan, which is located in the inner parts of Asia, with the effect of surface shapes. Temperature varies widely throughout the year and day. The temperature, which rarely falls below 35 ° C in summer, rises up to 50 ° C in the shade in the Karakum Desert in the southeast; In the winter months, it drops to -33 ° C in Kuşka on the border with Afghanistan. Humidity is low and precipitation is insufficient. The average annual precipitation is around 80 mm in the northwest deserts, and up to 300 mm in the mountainous regions.

The main rivers in Turkmenistan are the Ceyhun (Amu Derya) River, which flows along the northeastern border of the country and flows into Lake Aral, and the Herirud (Tecen), Murgab and Atrek rivers. Many canals have been built in the country for irrigation purposes. The construction of the Karakum Canal, one of the world's largest irrigation and transportation canals along the Karakum Desert, began in the 1950s and was completed in 1988. In Turkmenistan, apart from the oases, valleys and plateaus covered with a soil layer suitable for irrigated agriculture, the natural vegetation displays desert characteristics. Wild grapes, almonds, figs and walnuts are grown in the valleys of the Kopet Mountains, and poplar , willow and reed grow on the river banks.

In Turkmenistan, foxes , wild cats and gazelles live in the desert areas , and goats , cheetahs , lynxes and porcupines live in the mountainous areas. Water birds migrating in large flocks stay on the eastern shores of the Caspian Sea in winter. Various fish species live in the Caspian Sea, primarily sturgeon , which is famous for its caviar.

TURKMENISTAN Physical Structure

The Karakum Desert covers four-fifths of Turkmenistan's territory. Kugitang and Kopet mountains located in the south, Pamir are the branches of the Altay mountain range. The Kopet Mountains draw the natural border with Iran. Small (772 m), Great Balkan (1880 m) and Krasnovods (308 m) plateaus are located in the north-east of the country.

TURKMENISTAN Population and Social Life

The population growth in Turkmenistan with a population of 3,714,000 is 2.7%. Turkmens constitute 72% of the population, Russians 9.5%, Kazakhs 2.5%, Uzbeks 9%, and other nations 7%.

There are five provinces in Turkmenistan, namely Ashgabat, Krasnovodski (Kızılsu), Mari (Merv), and Taşağuz Cercoz, and 21 districts and 14 cities are connected to them.

Much importance is attached to education in Turkmenistan compared to the population. The Turkmen Yomut language, adopted in 1925, is used as a literary language. The literacy rate is 99%. There are 9 universities and 56 institutes affiliated to the Academy of Sciences in the country. Education is compulsory and free of charge between the ages of 7-17.

A census is being conducted in the country with the recommendation of the United Nations in order to update the statistical information.
The demographic structure of the country will also be revealed in the census to be conducted by the Turkmenistan Statistical Institute.

The census is carried out by 24 thousand people. University students, civil servants, doctors and teachers were also included in the census study.

The census census process was transmitted to their subscribers as an SMS message by GSM operators operating in the country. In addition, within the framework of the census studies, a private telephone line will be established throughout the country and information flow will be provided. The census officers will get information by visiting the houses in the region where they are assigned.

It was noted that the final results of the census will be announced in July 2013.

The last census in Turkmenistan was held in 1995. According to the results in 1995, the population of the country is approximately 4 million 800 thousand people.
In the census conducted in 1897, the population of Turkmenistan was recorded as 850 thousand people.


The economy of Turkmenistan is mainly based on agriculture and oil and natural gas. Turkmenistan has the fourth largest natural gas reserves in the world and is one of the 10 largest cotton producers in the world. Turkmenistan is one of the fastest growing economies in the world today.

After Saparmurat Niyazov became president, water, natural gas, electricity and salt, which have been given to the public free of charge since 1991, started to be charged as of January 1, 2019 with a decree issued by Kurbankul Berdimuhammedov in parallel with the decline in the level of welfare.

Turkey Relations TURKMENISTAN

Turkey-Turkmenistan relations are foreign relations between Turkey and Turkmenistan. Turkey, that the disintegration of the Soviet Union, established as a result of Turkmenistan's independence, the first country to open an embassy in the newly independent country was the first country in the world. Turkmenistan has an ambassador in Ankara and a consul general in Istanbul. Both countries are full members of the Economic Cooperation Organization, the Islamic Cooperation Organization, the International Organization of Turkish Culture and the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe. The two countries share close cultural links. Turkey, will visit the Turkmen passport holders visa-free is one of the 47 countries.

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