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Yakutia or Sakha Republic is one of the federated republics that make up Russia. Yakuts, who make up the majority of the population, are a Turkish people. The full name of the republic in Russian is written as Respublika Saha

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A Turkish state located in Central Asia. To the north is the Russian Federation, the Ural Mountains and Southern Siberia, to the east, Mongolia and East Turkistan, to the south, Kyrgyzstan, Uzbekistan, Aladag, Tanrı Mountains and Aral Lake, and to the west the Caspian Sea. The east and west borders are 3000 km, and the north and south borders are 1500 km.



Yakutia History

The oldest human traces in the Yakutia area belong to the upper Paleolite (20-10 thousand BC years). The Yakuts (Sahalar), a Turkish tribe that came from the south in the 6-10th centuries AD, came under the control of the Russian Empire in the first half of the 17th century. Yakutsk province, the largest city of Yakutia, was founded in 1632. In 1638, the Yakutsk province (Voyevodstvo) was created and these lands were opened to the settlement of the Russians. The Russians especially settled in the cities along the central part of the Lena river. Sahalar, who had led a nomadic lifestyle for centuries, settled down in the 19th century. The national consciousness of the Saha (Yakut) Turks has started to increase noticeably. On September 27, 1950, the "Declaration of State Sovereignty of the Yakut Saha Soviet Socialist Republic" was declared. Direct presidential election was held on 20 December 1991 in the history of the republic. As soon as the president took office, he declared the name of the republic as "Sakha Republic" as the first job. Yakuts are also mentioned as Kurıkan in Orhun inscriptions. Later, the Yakuts, who retreated to the north, lost their ties with the main Turkish mass. So Yard (Ruby) is a little away from Türkçesi from Turkish to Turkey and other Turkish dialects. It is also stated by experts that the fields are an extension of the Scythian (Saka) Turks who have existed for nearly 10 centuries in history. Calling themselves Saha is also an evidence for this.

Republic of Yakutia

It depends on Russia.
Area: 3.103.200 km2
Population: 1,381,000
Capital: Yakutsk


It is located in the basin of the Lena, Yana, Indigirka and Kolıma rivers, which flow into the Arctic Ocean in northeastern Siberia. More than 40% of the country is north of the polar circle. 20% of the country is in the north pole and 2/3 is covered by mountains. The average temperature is -34, -50 C ° in January, + 18, + 29 C ° in July (central region).

With a highly continental subarctic climate (Köppen climate classification: Dfd), Yakutsk has the coldest winter temperatures of any major cities in the world. Average monthly temperature in Yakutsk ranges from +19.5 ° C (67.1 ° F) in July to -38.6 ° C (-37.5 ° F) in January. Yakutsk is the largest city built on continuous permafrost [3], and many houses are piled on concrete.

The lowest temperatures recorded on the planet outside Antarctica occurred in the Yana River basin northeast of Yakutsk, making it the coldest city in the world. Although the winters were extremely cold and long, temperatures above freezing were not recorded in Yakutsk between November 10 and March 14.

Summers are quite short but hot, with daily temperatures exceeding 10.2 ° C (18.4 ° F) at times, and this change in temperature makes it the place with the most seasonal temperature difference in the world. [4] The lowest temperature ever recorded in Yakutsk was -64.4C on February 5, 1891. The highest temperatures recorded in Yakutsk were +38.4 C on 17 July 2011 and +38.3 C on 15 July 1942.

Yakutsk has a separate inland region, almost 1000 km inland from the Pacific Ocean, and this combines with high latitude, so severe winters are experienced. In line with this, July temperatures rise to above-normal average values ​​and are on average a few degrees warmer than those in the more southern Far Eastern cities such as Vladivostok or Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk. July daytime temperatures are even warmer than in some marine subtropical regions. Hot summers make Yakutsk very south of the tree line, despite the cold winters.

The climate is fairly dry, and most of the annual rainfall occurs in the hottest months, due to the intense "Siberian high" around the continental climate that is very cold during the winter. However, summer rainfall is not severe as the damp southeast winds from the Pacific Ocean lose moisture in the coastal mountains before reaching the Lena valley.

In summer, there are several river boat tours that showcase the Lena Pillars high above the Lena river, spectacular views down the river, and the Lena Delta wildlife.

YAKUTISTAN Physical Structure

Approximately 2/3 of Yakutia land is covered with mountains and plateaus, whereas only 1/3 of it is covered with plains and plains. The highest point of the republic is the Pobeda summit, which is 3147 meters high and located on the Çerski mountain mass. Four major natural ecological belts are prominently located on the territory of Yakutia. These ecological belts from south to north are: the taiga forest belt, the forested tundra belt, the tundra belt and the arctic belt. Yakutia is the richest republic of Russia in terms of both forest land and snow and ice covered lands (Rakovskaya and Davidov, 2003). Almost all of Yakutia land is located in the zone of frozen lands, also known as the permafrost zone.6 Only the south-eastern part of the republic's territory is an example of an all-year-round non-freezing zone. Throughout Yakutistan, the thickness of the frozen soils continuously throughout the year is 300-400 meters, but this depth reaches up to 1500 meters. In other words, in the Vilyüy basin in East Yakutistan, 1.5 kilometers deep continuously frozen soils form the deepest frozen layer of the whole planet. In addition, there are 485 glaciers in Yakutia. The total area of these glaciers is 413 km2 and they contain 2000 m3 fresh water potential (Rakovskaya and Davidov, 2003). Yakutistan is a cold country dominated by mountainous and rugged terrain. The eastern part of the Central Siberian plateau is located in the west of the republic. This medium-high plateau is divided by deep valleys formed by the Lena, Vilyüy, Linde, Anabar and Olenok rivers. In the lower reaches of the Lena River, the Central Siberian plateau joins with the Prilenskoe plateau, and the Stanovoy and Aldan mountains, whose height does not exceed 2500 meters, are located in the southernmost part of the country. Just west of the lower reaches of the Lena valley lies the Verhoyansk mountain range, extending in a north-south direction and not exceeding 2400 meters in height. In the eastern part of Yakutistan, the Çerski mountain range and the Yukagir plateau draw attention. On the Çerski mountain range, which covers the southern parts of the Yana and Indigirka basins, the Pobeda summit (3147 m), which is the highest point of Yakutia, is located in the source point of the Moma river (Toçenov and Markov, 1984). The Yukagir plateau, whose height does not exceed 1200 meters, is located in the south of the Kolima basin, while the Kolima plain, which is covered with swamps and small lakes, is located in the north of the same basin. In addition, Yana-Indigirka plain, another great plain of Yakutistan, was formed as a result of the merging of the flood plains formed by the Yana and Indigirka rivers. The delta plains with wetlands formed by the Yana, Lena, Kolima and Indigirka rivers are among the main plains of the country. However, due to the harsh polar climate and frozen soils, these plains do not carry out agricultural activities and they also lack large settlements.

YAKUTISTAN Population and Social Life

According to 1998 estimates, 50.5% of the population of Saha (Yakut) Muhtar Republic, which was 1.381.000, consists of Russians and 36.9% of them are Saha (Yakut). The remaining 13% is comprised of Ukrainians, Kazakhs, Tatars and Azerbaijanis. The population of the capital Yakutsk is 270,000. 95% of the Yakut live within the borders of the Saha (Yakut) Mukhtar Republic.

Yakutia Economy

Fur hunting and fishing have an important place among the livelihoods of the people. Sable, arctic fox, squirrel, fox and rare fish varieties found in the country; It attracts hunters and adventurers. The fame of quality furs and fish produced by these hunters is famous all over the world. One of the most important resources of the Saha (Yakut) Mukhtar Republic is its underground wealth. Diamond, gold, gas, coal, silver and copper are mined in the country. All the elements in the Mendeleev table are in the Saha (Yakut) Mukhtar Republic. Elmas Saha has a very important place in its homeland. One of the most valuable of these is the 342.5 carat diamond, which is in the museum in Moscow. Diamonds are mined in almost every region of the Saha (Yakut) Mukhtar Republic.

Turkey Relations Yakutia

The Yakuts, who are very friendly and caring towards foreigners, especially Turks, resemble Kazakhs and Mongols at first glance. If you look carefully, they look very much like the Indians. A symbolic Indian tent appeared in one of the back streets. When I said this would not be enough, I learned that these are actually traditional Yakut tents. This similarity is also evident in clothing and jewelry.
Yakuts call themselves Field. Its Turkish equivalent is "collar", meaning "on the edge". The Tunguz called them "Yako", and the Russians changed it to "Yakut". A Turkish people we know very little. Although I know many Turkish languages and dialects very well, I understood Yakut language very well. They settled centuries ago in these lands thousands of kilometers northeast of Central Asia. With the influence of Mongolian, Tunguz and Russian, with whom they lived together for 200 years, their language has moved away from other Turkish dialects. On the other hand, like the main long vowels, they preserved some important features of Mother Turkish. Shamanism, the prevalent religion of pre-Islamic Turkish communities, is widespread in the countryside. Yakutsk people, on the other hand, mostly bear Christian and Russian names.


In Yakutsk, it does not get dark during the summer, the sun goes down to the horizon and rises again. Helsinki, Oslo, St. During the "white nights" in St. Petersburg, the air becomes cloudy and twilight falls for a few hours. Always bright in Yakutsk. Since the day does not rise in winter, the people of this country always experience extreme points.
Due to such harsh climatic conditions, asphalt and railways cannot be built. The only means of transportation in the country the size of continental Europe is aircraft. All products are transported by plane from Moscow or Irkutsk. Therefore, life is expensive. The population of the city is 200 thousand, the population of the country is less than one million. But there are more than 200 airports. This is another world record. The ballot boxes are delivered to the villages by helicopters during the election. Russia, the world's second largest diamond producer, extracts almost all of its diamonds from Yakutia. 25 percent of the world's diamond production is done here. Gold, uranium and natural gas deposits are very rich. In short, it is the wealthiest region of Russia, but only a small part of the income stays here.
Many prehistoric mammoth and dinosaur fossils are found in Yakutia. It is possible to see the mammoth head that has been preserved for thousands of years in the Mammoth Museum in Yakutsk. The Museum of History and Culture and the National Art Gallery are extremely interesting to see how our distant relatives, the Yakuts, preserve our common cultural elements we shared with them in the past, in their most original form. Just like their language.
Yakutsk, as a city, does not promise great dreams to travelers. But Yakutistan, with its natural beauty, is a virgin country that you cannot find anywhere else in the world. Interesting with its ethnic structure and unique culture, this distant land, attractive with its unique nature, deserves to be included in the list of “places to see” for those who love extreme points.

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